Chapter 3 Notes and Vocab
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 3 Notes Clinical research, assessment, and classification of abnormal behavior Clinical research methods As in other areas, the scientific method is used in abnormal psychology to collect data and test hypotheses to create theories Studies are often replicated to confirm or falsify previous findings that may be described as "conclusive" in mass media Examples: o Childhood vaccines may cause autism - not supported o Antidepressants raise suicide risk in children and adolescents - needs further research Case study Intensive study of one individual; usually relies on clinical data such as: o Observations o Medical and psychological tests o Historical information Can determine characteristics, course, and outcome of a rare disorder Used to study therapeutic or diagnostic techniques Correlational studies Use statistical analysis to determine correlation (association) between variables that cannot or should not be controlled No causality is implied Types of correlation: positive, negative, no correlation Types of correlation research: o Prospective study - monitor participants over time, nothing correlations between early and later events o Retrospective study - collect information after the fact to assess relevance of early behavior on later behavior Experimental research Best method to establish causal relationships between variables Independent variable - the presumed cause of change in another variable Dependent variable - the measured (effect) variable It is difficult to conduct experiment research in the area of abnormal psychology; some variables cannot be manipulated o Example: child abuse Other research methods Analogue studies: o Attempts to simulate real-life situation under controlled conditions o Used when it is not possible to control all variables in real-life situations or when ethical issues preclude other types of studies - like using rats to test effects of lack of control on depression Field studies: o Behaviors and events are observed and recorded in their natural environment (like after flood, war, etc.) o Techniques include observation, interviews, surveys, review of existing data Epidemiology The study of the distribution of disorders in the general population Prevalence rate - percentage of individuals in population with a particular disorder in a specific period of time (like 1% for schizophrenia) Incidence - number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population within a specific period of time (like suicide in the US is 12 per 100,000 per year) Genetic linkage studies Goal: determine whether a disorder follows a genetic pattern If disorder is genetically linked: o Individuals closely related to person with disorder will be more likely to display disorder o Prevalence should increase with relatedness Problem: difficult to separate genetic from environmental factors Twin studies Monozygotic (identical) twins: o Share the same DNA, tend to develop more differences from one another as they age Dizygotic (fraternal) twins: o Different DNA, but share same prenatal and childhood environments Concordance rate - the percentage of twin pairs in which both twins have the same disorder, the concordance rate for hereditary disorders is higher in MZ than DZ twins Adoption Studies If a disorder is hereditary, biological children of affected parents with have higher than average rates of the disorder, despite being raised by unaffected adoptive parents Most effective studies: MZ twins raised in different adoptive families Epigenetic research Study of environment factors that influence whether or not a gene is expressed ("turned off or on") Builds on idea that certain environmental factors have greatest impact during sensitive periods in development Epigenetic changes can leave an imprint on eggs or sperm and affects traits inherited by future generations Methods of assessment How do we acquire information from patients to make a diagnosis? Reliability - degree to which a test or procedure consistently yields the same results under the same circumstances Validity - extent to which a test or procedure actually measures what it is supposed to measure Standardization - administering a test using common rules or procedures Interviewing Goal - to obtain history that will form the basis of a diagnosis and treatment plan The Clinical interview o Identifying information o Presenting problem - what brought you in today? o Social history o Medical history - help to gather a hypothesis o Initial impressions - from therapist's perspective what is the issue o Recommendations Analyze verbal and nonverbal behavior; content and process of communication Observations Naturalistic observations: o Parent - child interactions o Impatient ward observations o School observations o Group observations Information from others Rating scales o Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - teacher and parent ratings o Alzheimer's disease o Chronic mental illness Family interview measures Mini mental status examination Evaluates cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning using questions, observations, and tasks Clinician considers the appropriateness and quality of the client's responses to form a tentative opinion of diagnosis and treatment needs Psychological tests Standardized tools that measure characteristics such as personality, social skills, etc. Projective personality tests - client is presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to respond in some way o Rorschach technique o Thematic apperception test (TAT) o Sentence-completion test o Draw a person test Self-report inventories Used to assess depression, anxiety, personality traits, emotional reactivity, etc. Examples: o Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI and MMPI-2) o Myers-Briggs type indication (MBTI) o Revises NEO personality inventory o 16 PF o Keirsey temperament sorter Examples of MMPI items I would like to be a singer I feel that it is certainly best to keep my mouth shut when I'm in trouble Evil spirts possess me at times I am bothered by acid stomach several times a week I have had very peculiar and strange experiences I seldom worry about my heath At times I feel like smashing things Much of the time my head seems to hurt all over I do not always tell the truth When I am with people I am bothered by hearing very queer things My soul sometimes leaves my body Intelligence tests Used to obtain intelligence quotient (IQ), or estimate of current level of cognitive functioning Also can provide clinical data Weschsler scales - most widely used; assess verbal and perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed WAIS, WISC, WPPSI Criticisms of intelligence tests o Fail to consider the effects of cultures, poverty, discrimination, and oppression o Do not consider multidimensional attributes of intelligence o Have a poor level of predictive validity of future behaviors and achievement; motivation and work ethic may matter more Neuropsychological tests Assess cognitive functions including learning, memory, attention, problem solving, abstract thinking, planning, etc. "Executive functions" Neurological tests Allows noninvasive visualizations of brain structures: o Electroencephalograph (EEG) o Computerized axial tomography (CT) o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) - you do a task while you receive the MRI o Positron emission tomography (PET) History of psychiatric disorders 1930-1970 diagnosis was viewed as unimportant o Primary treatment model - psychoanalysis o Diagnostic schemes were inconsistent and incomplete; little agreement on definitions of disorders o In the 1960's and 1970's diagnosis was seen as form of social control Renewed interest in diagnosis (1975): o Psychometric assessment were developed o Computers allowed for the analysis of large data sets o Other treatment models became popular, so diagnosis became necessary to determine the most appropriate treatment method The DSM series The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, each revision was an attempt to increase reliability and validity Newest: DSM-5 (2013) Diagnostic categories: Neurodevelopmental disorder - cognitive, learning, and language disabilities evident early in life Neurocognitive disorders - psychological or behavioral abnormalities associated with dysfunction of the brain Substance-related and addictive disorders - excessive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications that results in impaired functioning; behavioral addictions such as gambling Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders - disorders marked by severe impairment in thinking and perception, often involving delusions, hallucinations, and inappropriate affect Bipolar and related disorders - disorders characterized by episodes of mania or hypomania, alternating with periods or normal and/or depressed mood Depressive disorders - disorders associated with feelings of sadness, emptiness, and social withdrawal Anxiety disorders - disorders characterized by excessive or irrational anxiety or fear, often accompanied by avoidance behaviors and fearful cognitions or worry Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders - disorders characterized by obsessions (recurrent thoughts) and/or compulsions (repetitive behaviors) and other compulsive behavior such as hoarding Trauma and stressor-related disorders - disorders associated with chronic or acute reactions to trauma and stress Somatic symptom and related disorders - disorders involving physical symptoms that cause distress and disability, including high levels of health anxiety and disproportionate concern over bodily dysfunction Dissociative disorders - disturbance or alteration in memory, identity, or consciousness, including amnesia, having two or more distinct personalities, or experiencing feelings of depersonalization Sexual dysfunctions - disorders involving the disruption of any stage of a normal sexual response cycle, including desire, arousal, or orgasm Gender dysphoria - significant distress associated with conflict between biological sex and gender assigned at birth Paraphilic disorders - recurrent, intense sexual fantasies or urges involving nonhuman objects, pain, humiliation or children Eating disorders - disturbed eating patterns and body dissatisfaction involving bingeing, purging, excessive dieting Sleep-wake disorders - problems in initiating/maintaining sleep, excessive sleepiness, sleep disruptions, sleepwalking, or repeated awakening associated with nightmares Personality disorders - disorders involving stable personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive and notably impair functioning or cause subjective distress Chapter 3 Vocabulary Psychopathy - the study of the symptoms, causes, and treatments of mental disorders Scientific method - a method of inquiry that provides for the systematic collection of data, controlled observation, and the testing of hypotheses Hypothesis - a tentative explanation for certain facts or observations Case study - an intensive study of one individual that relies on critical data, such as observations, psychological tests, and historical and biographical information Experiment - a technique of scientific inquiry in which a prediction is made about two variables; the independent variable is then manipulated in a controlled situation, and changes in the dependent variable are measured Experimental hypothesis - a prediction concerning how an independent variable will affect a dependent variable in an experiment Independent variable - a variable or condition that an experimenter manipulates to determine its effect on a dependent variable Dependent variable - a variable that is expected to change when an independent variable is manipulated in a psychological experiment Placebo effect - improvement produced by expectations of a positive treatment outcome Placebo - an ineffectual or sham treatment, such as an inactive substance, used as a control in an experimental study Single-blind design - an experimental design in which only the participants are unaware of the purpose of the research Double-blind design - an experimental design in which neither those helping with the experiment nor the participants are aware of experimental conditions Analogue study - an investigation that attempts to replicate or simulate, under controlled conditions, a situation that occurs in real life Field study - an investigative technique in which behaviors and events are observed and recorded in their natural environment Endophenotypes - measurable characteristics (neurochemical, endocrinological, neutoanatomical, cognitive, or neuropsychological) that can give clues regarding the specific genes involved in disorders Genetic linkage studies - studies that attempt to determine whether a disorder follows a genetic pattern Epidemiological research - the study of the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders in the population Prevalence - the percentage of individuals in a targeted population who have a particular disorder during a specific period of time Lifetime prevalence - the percentage of people in the population who have had a disorder at some point in their lives Incidence - the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in an identified population within a specified time period Psychodiagnosis - assessment and description of an individual's psychological symptoms, including inferences about what might be causing the psychological distress Reliability - the degree to which a measure of procedure yields the same results repeatedly Validity - the degree to which an instrument measures what it was developed to measure Psychosis - a condition involving loss of contact with or a distorted view of reality, including disorganized thinking, false beliefs, or seeing or hearing things that are not there Standardization - the use of identical procedures in the administration of tests Standardization sample - the comparison group on which test norms are based Projective personality test - testing involving responses to ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots, pictures, or incomplete sentences Course - the usual pattern that a disorder follows Comorbid - the presence of two or more disorders in the same person
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