HIST 100 Week 1 Chapter 1 Notes
HIST 100 Week 1 Chapter 1 Notes Hist 100
Popular in History 100: Empires and Constitutions
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Yoshida on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 100 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Michelle Tusan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History 100: Empires and Constitutions in History at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Rome: The Original Empire – 08/31/2016 Discussion: Sallust: Interesting how men all of a sudden were interested in women and wine Romans started to do things just because they could (like build things) Jerome: Referred to Rome as “she” or “her See themselves as religious and barbarians as lesser people Justinian: To live honestly, to injure no one, and to give every man his dues o Similar to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness The Roman Model: Rome as a Republic: o Begins as a Republic after independence o Lasts 450 years (50944 BCE) Rome as an Empire o Byzantium lasts until 1453 CE Lecture: Other Empires: Persia Darius I 521486 BCE In present day Middle East Greece was an example of democracy 300 BCE Controlled the land that Persia once occupied Legacy of Rome: Roman Catholic Church Roman Law o Influenced most of Europe o Except England, England follows English common law o U.S. follows English common law except for Louisiana Louisiana follows Roman law Language o Derived from Latin Slavery o Concept comes from Rome o Based on legal status Prisoners of war o Could buy their freedom or be given freedom by owners o Former slaves can become prominent Concept of citizenship o Cast Can’t be a slave, can’t be a woman, can’t be a foreigner o Must be a local o Be actively engaged in community and society o Lays out rights of citizens to the state Obligations to the state State owes you protection You owe the state taxes Rome Concepts: Empire: 2 meanings o Rome ruled by emperors o The Roman Republic’s Empire Imperium o “the legal power to command” o Latin Barbarians o Describes those living outside of the empire Early Rome: Rome started as city state Model of Ancient world state formation Powerful regions gobbled up less powerful ones through warfare History: Founded 753 BCE Run by foreigners o Etruscans rule until 510 2 castes of people o Patricians (Aristocrats) o Plebs (Commoners) Government: Republican system Mixed Constitution – 509 BCE o Patricians run Senate o Plebs had popular assembly Not as powerful as Senate o Magistrates have imperium (despotic) o Romans saw the mixed constitution as confusing as to where the power lay Rome was NOT built in a day o “Our republic was not made by the work of one man, but of many, not in a single lifetime but through many generations and centuries.” Cato Cato was an early Roman historian Law: Early republic: o Written on 12 tablets o Based on principle of equity for citizens o Regularly updated written statues Much more flexible Under Emperors o Civil Law both written and unwritten Justinian pg 10 “whatever the Emperor…these are what are called constitutions” Rome builds an empire: Exert power first in Mediterranean o Punic wars against Carthaginians Carthage – richest Mediterranean city Great Cost o 100,000 Roman soldiers died o Still worth the cost because of what was won The Republic’s Empire: Imitate Greece o Greece was the most successful empire at the time 300 BCE – control most of Italy 146 – Roman power is uncontested o Conquered states – “allies” o Outsider territories – “protectorates” Roman Rule: Decentralized government o Governs 5060 million people with 3,000 civil servants o Governors Rarely saw anyone above a civil servant Citizens got: o Protection o Building projects Roman roads/walks Bridges Aqueducts Taxation o Helps administer the empire o Corrupt Banking Trade Impact on Roman Society: Wealth o Can still see the things that were built today Education o Valued for both men and women o Teachers were not taxed Expansion o Attitude of expand or die o Always wanted more Management Challenges to Republic: Reformers want more pleb control o Poor are upset because they feel that they don’t have any control Rise of Julius Caesar o Patrician born o Marries daughter of popular faction Cornelia Gives him access to popular faction o Extends political power Becomes one of the world’s greatest conquerors Caesar’s Empire: Commands army well Conquers Gauls in 51 BCE o Gauls = French Creates thriving provinces Goes to Egyot o Fathers son with Cleopatra Nominated as a dictator Consolidates power January 44BCE – takes title “dictator for life” March 15, 44 BCE – assassinated by Brutus and Cassius After Caesar: Great nephew Augustus reigns 45 years o Born as Octavius o 27 BCE18CE o Took over at the age of 18 and became Augustus o Stabilizes Rome o Expands Empire o Despotic Problem of succession o Gives power to his stepson Tiberius o Start to see a succession of emperors Legacy: “Romanization of provinces” o Education Teachers are important o Public and private projects Law o Word of the emperor is law o Enforced by people who are picked by the emperor Government o Standardizes local government o Sends people out to make peace with local elites, rulers, kings, etc by exchanging Protection for loyalty Slavery o Ruins economy o Those being paid to build things are then replaced by slaves Previously paid people are now poor Entertainment o Gladiators Mostly prisoners Gift that the emperors give the people Ex: took place in the Colosseum Decline: Emperor Constantine o Founds Constantinople as Christian capital in 330 Moved capital from Italy to Turkey o Raises his sons as Christians Declines during Byzantine period (3001453) Fall of Rome: Sallust: Moral Decline (pp 45) St. Jerome: Barbarian invasions (pp 67) Climate change and disease Errors of individual rulers Rise of Christianity Rome’s Legacy: Early imperial model for West o Ottoman, AustroHungarian, and Russian All look at Rome and see what worked and what went wrong Model for American Republic o American revolution draws on models from antiquity o James Madison, “A republic…promises the cure for which we are seeking” (Fed.10) Fall of Rome through American Eyes: See Caesar and Augustus viewed as traitors o They betrayed the republic They became dictators and abandoned republic Founding fathers fear Rome’s move from republic to empire Christianity: Born in Palestine Groups seek toleration Challenges Roman hegemony Peter founds church at Rome BCE: Before Common Era CE: Common Era
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