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History 100 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Brittney Yoshida

History 100 Chapter 1 Notes Hist 100

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > History > Hist 100 > History 100 Chapter 1 Notes
Brittney Yoshida


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These notes are on Chapter 1
History 100: Empires and Constitutions
Michelle Tusan
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Yoshida on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 100 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Michelle Tusan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History 100: Empires and Constitutions in History at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Rome: The Original Empire – 08/31/2016 Discussion: Sallust:  Interesting how men all of a sudden were interested in women and wine  Romans started to do things just because they could (like build things) Jerome:  Referred to Rome as “she” or “her  See themselves as religious and barbarians as lesser people Justinian:  To live honestly, to injure no one, and to give every man his dues o Similar to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness The Roman Model:  Rome as a Republic: o Begins as a Republic after independence o Lasts 450 years (509­44 BCE)  Rome as an Empire o Byzantium lasts until 1453 CE Lecture: Other Empires: Persia  Darius I 521­486 BCE  In present day Middle East Greece was an example of democracy  300 BCE   Controlled the land that Persia once occupied Legacy of Rome:  Roman Catholic Church  Roman Law o Influenced most of Europe  o Except England, England follows English common law o U.S. follows English common law except for Louisiana  Louisiana follows Roman law  Language o Derived from Latin  Slavery o Concept comes from Rome o Based on legal status  Prisoners of war o Could buy their freedom or be given freedom by owners o Former slaves can become prominent   Concept of citizenship o Cast ­ Can’t be a slave, can’t be a woman, can’t be a foreigner o Must be a local o Be actively engaged in community and society o Lays out rights of citizens to the state  Obligations to the state  State owes you protection  You owe the state taxes Rome Concepts:  Empire: 2 meanings o Rome ruled by emperors o The Roman Republic’s Empire  Imperium o “the legal power to command” o Latin  Barbarians o Describes those living outside of the empire Early Rome:  Rome started as city state  Model of Ancient world state formation  Powerful regions gobbled up less powerful ones through warfare History:  Founded 753 BCE  Run by foreigners o Etruscans rule until 510  2 castes of people o Patricians (Aristocrats) o Plebs (Commoners) Government:  Republican system  Mixed Constitution – 509 BCE o Patricians run Senate o Plebs had popular assembly  Not as powerful as Senate o Magistrates have imperium (despotic) o Romans saw the mixed constitution as confusing as to where the power lay  Rome was NOT built in a day o “Our republic was not made by the work of one man, but of many, not in a single  lifetime but through many generations and centuries.” Cato  Cato was an early Roman historian Law:  Early republic: o Written on 12 tablets o Based on principle of equity for citizens o Regularly updated written statues  Much more flexible  Under Emperors o Civil Law both written and unwritten  Justinian pg 10 “whatever the Emperor…these are what are called constitutions” Rome builds an empire:  Exert power first in Mediterranean o Punic wars against Carthaginians  Carthage – richest Mediterranean city  Great Cost o 100,000 Roman soldiers died o Still worth the cost because of what was won The Republic’s Empire:  Imitate Greece o Greece was the most successful empire at the time  300 BCE – control most of Italy  146 – Roman power is uncontested o Conquered states – “allies” o Outsider territories – “protectorates” Roman Rule:  Decentralized government o Governs 50­60 million people with 3,000 civil servants o Governors  Rarely saw anyone above a civil servant  Citizens got: o Protection o Building projects  Roman roads/walks  Bridges  Aqueducts  Taxation o Helps administer the empire o Corrupt  Banking  Trade Impact on Roman Society:  Wealth o Can still see the things that were built today  Education o Valued for both men and women o Teachers were not taxed  Expansion o Attitude of expand or die o Always wanted more  Management Challenges to Republic:  Reformers want more pleb control o Poor are upset because they feel that they don’t have any control  Rise of Julius Caesar o Patrician born o Marries daughter of popular faction   Cornelia  Gives him access to popular faction o Extends political power  Becomes one of the world’s greatest conquerors Caesar’s Empire:  Commands army well  Conquers Gauls in 51 BCE o Gauls = French  Creates thriving provinces  Goes to Egyot o Fathers son with Cleopatra  Nominated as a dictator  Consolidates power  January 44BCE – takes title “dictator for life”  March 15, 44 BCE – assassinated by Brutus and Cassius After Caesar:  Great nephew Augustus reigns 45 years o Born as Octavius  o 27 BCE­18CE o Took over at the age of 18 and became Augustus  o Stabilizes Rome o Expands Empire o Despotic  Problem of succession o Gives power to his step­son Tiberius  o Start to see a succession of emperors Legacy:  “Romanization of provinces” o Education  Teachers are important o Public and private projects  Law o Word of the emperor is law o Enforced by people who are picked by the emperor  Government o Standardizes local government o Sends people out to make peace with local elites, rulers, kings, etc by exchanging  Protection for loyalty  Slavery o Ruins economy o Those being paid to build things are then replaced by slaves  Previously paid people are now poor  Entertainment o Gladiators  Mostly prisoners  Gift that the emperors give the people  Ex: took place in the Colosseum  Decline:  Emperor Constantine o Founds Constantinople as Christian capital in 330  Moved capital from Italy to Turkey o Raises his sons as Christians  Declines during Byzantine period (300­1453) Fall of Rome:  Sallust: Moral Decline (pp 4­5)  St. Jerome: Barbarian invasions (pp 6­7)  Climate change and disease  Errors of individual rulers  Rise of Christianity Rome’s Legacy:  Early imperial model for West o Ottoman, Austro­Hungarian, and Russian  All look at Rome and see what worked and what went wrong  Model for American Republic o American revolution draws on models from antiquity o James Madison, “A republic…promises the cure for which we are seeking”  (Fed.10) Fall of Rome through American Eyes:  See Caesar and Augustus viewed as traitors o They betrayed the republic  They became dictators and abandoned republic  Founding fathers fear Rome’s move from republic to empire Christianity:  Born in Palestine  Groups seek toleration  Challenges Roman hegemony  Peter founds church at Rome BCE: Before Common Era CE: Common Era


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