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RAT 4 Biology 1302 Notes

by: Sara Ali

RAT 4 Biology 1302 Notes BIOL1302/10025

Sara Ali

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Biology 1302 NOTES
General Biology 2
Rachel Hudspeth
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Ali on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1302/10025 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Rachel Hudspeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston Downtown.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Concept 27.1  Three lines of evidence that point to the single celled choanoflagellates as the closest living relatives of animals :  They are vicarious single celled predators  Serve as food for planktonic animals  What features do all animals have in common:  Eukaryotic  Multicellular  Have complex tissue with differentiated and specialized tissue  Are heterotrophs  They must consume living or dead organisms since they can’t synthesize their food such as they can be carnivores, herbivores, omnivores or parasites  There is an estimate of about 8.7 million species on Earth  The simplest of animals are sponges, jellies and octopuses. Sponges are sessile, they don’t move as they are stuck at one area and whatever food that passes their way they take it through their mouth. Sponges have only one symmetry that means the hole through which they ingest food is the same as the place that they eject food from. They have only one opening in their entire body and they don’t have the energy to reproduce or get food as they reproduce sexually.  Cells that line the epidermis of the cell  The Choanocytes in Profiera are the flagellated cells that line the spongoceol. These cells maintain the flow of water through the sponge and capture food, they are also called collar cells due to the collar of the cytoplasm surrounding the flagellum.  The Ameobocytes in Profiera are the cells that phagocytize food captured by the choanocytes and distribute nutrients to other cells of the sponge. In general, it’s any cell that resembles an amoeba.  Sponges don’t have organized tissue,they depend on specialized cells which are called choanocytes, porocytes, amoebocytes, and pincacytes for specialized functions withn their body. The mesophyll acts as an endoskeleton, helping maintain the shape of the sponge. Concept 27.2  Bilaterians are divided into two great clades such as the protostomes and the deutorsomes. They are animals with bilateral symmetry they have a front “anterior” and a back “posterior”, an upside “dorsal”, and downside “ventral”, they also have a left and right side.  A) Predator/Prey interactions: B) Increase in Oxygen concentration having more oxygen would give opportunities for animals to have higher metabolic rate, and it would generate larger sizes because it takes more oxygen to run a large body than a small body.  During the Cambrian explosion, some adaptations that are required by predator animals are adaptations for improved locomotion (move faster, move with more dexterity), better movement so it’s easier to get prey, and hard mouth parts  During the Cambrian explosion, some  Hox genes are master regulatory genes that code for transcription factors which then turns on other genes to make the products needed, proteins that are used for a purpose (Developmental genes). Concept 27.3  Body plan is the basic shape of members of an animal phylum, the general structure each individual organism assumes as it develops.  A) symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes withn the body of an organism. There are two types of symmetry are radial and bilaterial. Radial symmetry is found in animals such as a sea star or jelly fish. Bilaterial symmetry is found in most moving animals such as an earthworm, butterfly, dog or human. Head and tail is ( anterior and posterior), front and back ( dorsal and ventral).  B) The 3 germ layers are the ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The endoderm is the innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this.


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