Biodiversity Lesson 3
Biodiversity Lesson 3 BIO*106*D
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Laws on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO*106*D at Elon University taught by Kathleen Gallucci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biology: The Science of Life in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Biodiversity Lesson 3: Biodiversity: General term for the variety of things living on earth Every living thing 3 Levels of Biodiversity to study and protect: o Genetic Biodiversity: refers to the collection of genes within a population. Genes that survive environmental changes have an advantage and are passed down to offspring. (Evolution of natural selection) o Species Biodiversity: refers to the number of different species in an ecosystem or biosphere. New species appear as a result of evolutionary chance Old species become extinct (an irreversible loss of a species) o Ecosystem Biodiversity: refers to the variety of ecosystems on Earth Degradation of ecosystems threatens ecosystem services, which are benefits that human population receives from the ecosystems. Benefits of Biodiversity: Provides the foods we eat Almost all drugs are derived from natural products Economies of many countries depend on wildlife preserves and other wildlife destinations Hierarchy of Biodiversity: 1. Biosphere: All living organisms on earth and their environments. Also includes atmosphere and organisms living in the earth’s deep crust 2. Biome: Major life zones on earth, usually defined by their vegetation within them a. Terrestrial Biomes (identified by types of vegetation found within them) i. Tundra: occupies the latitudes between coniferous forests and polar ice. It is know for its dryness, cold temperatures high winds that produce permafrost and permanently frozen soil. 1. Low growing grasses, shrubs, lichens and mosses. 2. No permafrost beneath alpine tundra ii. Temperature Grasslands: 1. Known to be in regions with cold winters 2. Very low rainfall 3. Periodic droughts 4. Not much tree growth, hence why there’s so much grass iii. Tropical Forests: 1. Wet, warm and humid climate because its near the equator 2. Rain forests=many rainy seasons 3. Tropical dry forest=rainy seasons, punctuated by dry spells 4. Rain forests have dense canopy that hovers over the trees and shrubs, mostly consists of vines 5. Rich in vegetation to support a variety of wildlife. iv. Chaparral: 1. Coastal areas where ocean currents meet mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. 2. Landscape: evergreen shrubs with annual flowers common during winter and spring 3. Plants have adapted to help them survive wildfires v. Coniferous Forests: 1. Cone bearing evergreens (pine, hemlock redwoods) 2. Stretches across North America, Europe and Asia 3. LARGEST TERRESTRIAL BIOME! 4. Long, cold winters and short, wet summers vi. Temperate Broadleaf Forests: 1. Regions of hot summer, chilly winters, frequent rain 2. Supports growth of deciduous trees (leaf- bearing) vii. Savanna: 1. Warm, dry climates 2. Contain grasses with scattered, isolated trees 3. Wet season produces rapid vegetation 4. Most plant life has adapted to survive wildfires viii. Desert: 1. Very low rainfall 2. Can be extremely hot like the Sahara, and very cold at night like the Gobi 3. Plants have adapted to retain water (cacti) b. Aquatic Biomes: defined by abiotic factors, primarily salinity i. Freshwater biomes: cover less than 1% of Earth’s surface and contain only 0.01% of Earth’s water. They are home to nearly 6% of Earth’s species. 1. Lakes and Ponds: a. Standing bodies of water b. Algae, plants and other animals c. Growth of phytoplankton depends on the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus 2. Rivers and Streams: a. Flowing bodies of water b. Cold and low in nutrients c. Water is warmer downstream and that’s where most nutrients live 3. Wetlands: a. Swamps, bogs and marshes b. Where aquatic and terrestrial biomes meet c. Some have permanent water, others have seasonal d. Rich in nutrients e. Absorb and filter large amounts of water improves water quality f. Also reduces flooding ii. Intermediate Biomes: where land and freshwater biomes meet the oceans 1. Intertidal zones: a. Ocean meets land b. Characterized by sandy, rocky habitat that shelters sedentary organisms (algae, starfish, barnacles and mussels) c. Pounded by surf and exposed to sun 2. Estuaries a. Transitional biome between freshwater river and saltwater ocean b. Laden with nutrient rich sediment iii. Marine Biomes: 1. Coral Reefs: a. Occur in photic zone of warm tropical waters, located above continental shelf b. Coral animals with hard skeletons build on to the reefs c. Provide shelter and food d. 1 level: Continental Shelf: shallow region where a continental plate is submerged in ocean e. 2ndlevel: Pelagic Realm: is the open water region of ocean f. 3rdlevel: Photic Zone: waters where light can penetrate to drive photosynthesis, to depths of about 650 feet. g. 4thlevel: Benthic Realm: seafloor, where decomposers break down dead mtherial h. 5 level: Aphotic Zone: light to drive photosynthesis does not extend 2. Deep Sea: a. Where Earth’s tectonic plates meet. b. More than a mile below Earth’s surface, lie hydrothermal vents c. Hot gases and scalding water spew from Earth;s interior Organisms act with their ecosystems: Energy Flow: ecosystems are powered by continuous flows of energy, mainly sunlight. o Solar energy is captured and converted to chemical energy by producers (photosynthetic organisms like plants) o Which are then eaten by consumers Chemical Cycling: elements in the environment are absorbed by producers o Example: CO2 from the air is used to produce sugars in plants via photosynthesis. These elements are transferred to consumers when the plants are eaten. Then within cells from both producers and consumers, the sugars are broken down to provide cellular energy. Then CO2 is processed and released back into atmosphere. Energy is lost as it moves through trophic levels: Ecosystems consist of both living organisms (biotic factors) and nonliving factors that affect them (abiotic factors) Most important abiotic factor is energy Energy enters most ecosystems as sunlight Then energy is transformed, used and reused Then energy exits as heat Energy Flow: Species are grouped into trophic levels based on position in food chain Higher levels consumer lower levels Once energy enters ecosystem as sunlight, primary producers (plants and algae) convert solar energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis Primary consumers use chemical energy when they eat plants. Then higher level predators consume primary consumers and gain some of that chemical energy as food but losing much as heat. Decomposers break down the remains of dead organisms releasing heat. Trophic structure from TOP to BOTTOM: o TROPHIC LEVEL 4: Tertiary consumers- top level predators that consume organisms in lower levels o TROPHIC LEVEL 3: secondary consumers are carnivores that gain the chemical energy stored in primary consumers by eating them. o TROPHIC LEVEL 2: primary consumers are herbivores o TROPHIC LEVEL 1: primary producers o DECOMPOSERS Biochemical Cycle: when an atom passes between biotic and abiotic components. Occurs both locally (within a specific ecosystem) and globally (within the entire biosphere) NOTE: NUTRIENTS ARE RECYLCED, ENERGY IS NOT Ecosystems Goods and Services: Market Values: o Natural world supplies raw materials for goods that we use everyday ($2 trillion) o Wetlands and other coastal habitats filter water and take care of waste ($22 trillion) o Natural landscapes help control erosion ($16 trillion) o Recreation is a valuable industry in may parts of the world ($20 trillion) Nonmarket values: o The natural world has intrinsic value, which sometimes we don’t ever experience for ourselves o Natural world is a valuable place for scientific research o It helps to sustain and define cultures o Ecosystems provide valuable resources for teaching and learning
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