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Anthrobio: Week 1 Notes

by: Stephanie Esposito

Anthrobio: Week 1 Notes Anthrobio 368

Stephanie Esposito
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About this Document

These notes cover topics related to the first week of material for Anthrbio 368.
Dr. John Mitani
Class Notes
Anthropology, Biology, Psychology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Esposito on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthrobio 368 at University of Michigan taught by Dr. John Mitani in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
**Anything in red were questions from the weekly quizzes (everything else constitutes the regular notes)** ➔ What are the four questions Tinbergen asked about behavior? Explain each question briefly. ◆ Causation (mechanism): How does this behavior occur in an individual? ● Ex: Alterations in day length or photoperiod affect hormonal secretions within birds ◆ Development (Ontogeny): How does this behavior arise in an individual? ● Ex: This concerns the learning of an individual bird’s song- Many birds acquire song during an early critical period. ◆ Function (Adaptive Value): Why is this behavior adaptive for the species? ● Ex: Singing helps to defend the bird’s territory as well as attract females. ◆ Evolution (Phylogeny): How does this behavior arise in the species? ● Ex: One could compare the songs of a species of bird throughout the species’ evolution. ➔ Proximate questions: focus on things that occur during the life of an individual ◆ Causation and Development categories answer these questions ➔ Ultimate questions: focus on things that occur in populations over many generations ◆ Evolution and Function categories answer these kinds of questions ◆ How does this behavior help the organism or species survive and reproduce? ➔ Define natural selection ◆ Is the primary agent of evolutionary change ◆ The theory is based on two observations of the biological world (heritable differences between individuals and competition among individuals limits numbers) ◆ Defined as the differential reproduction of individuals based on the heritable differences between them ➔ What is the unit of natural selection? ◆ Natural selection looks at the individuals ◆ Refer to the cartoon in previous lecture notes ➔ What are the three modes of natural selection and their consequences? ◆ Stabilizing, Directional, and Disruptive are the three modes of natural selection ◆ Refer to the previous lecture slide with the 3x3 graph of the modes of natural selection ◆ Stabilizing selection → ● Original population: start with a wide bell curve ● Population after natural selection: changes to a skinny/more selective bell curve ● Ex: birds would lay nests containing 2 eggs- 8 eggs; later on, 4 eggs- 6 egg nests were selected for ◆ Directional selection → ● Original population: middle of bell curve is towards the left ● Population after natural selection: middle of bell curve shifted to the right ● Ex: originally white moths were best (bell curve was towards left of the spectrum), but after industrial revolution, the black moths were more competent (bell curve towards the right of the spectrum) ◆ Disruptive selection → ● Original population: peak in the middle of the curve, valleys at the beginning and end of the curve (a typical bell curve) ● Population after natural selection: curve peaks at beginning and end of spectrum (valley in the middle of the curve) ● Ex: Butterfly with coloring in the middle of the spectrum were able to disguise themselves as an unpalatable species, while the species that had coloring at the beginning and end of the spectrum were not able to disguise themselves and would usually get eaten; after a period of time, the species with coloring at the beginning and end of the spectrum were able to disguise themselves as a different unpalatable species, while the species that had coloring in the middle of the spectrum was unable to disguise itself and was the species that was most frequently eaten ➔ List any five of the cranial and postcranial traits of primates ◆ Postcranial: five fingers/toes, opposable big toe, prehensile hands, nails (not claws), friction or tactile pads on fingers and toes, hairless palms and plantar surfaces, relatively long fingers and toes, clavicle or collarbone, a well-developed caecum, penis pendulous, testes scrotal, always two pectoral mammae ◆ Cranial: olfaction is unspecialized (and reduced in diurnal species), emphasis on vision: convergent eyes/visual processing part of brain is well developed/relatively large eyes/large image is formed on the retina/concentration of photoreceptors in the central retina is relatively high/greater sharpness of vision, postorbital bar (lorisiformes and lemuriformes) or postorbital plate all others)- bony reinforcement absorbs forces from chewing and prevents deformation of orbital fossa, brain is relatively large compared to body size, teeth are unspecialized ◆ Life history: females invest heavily in offspring, and long inter-birth intervals ◆ Lengthening of life history traits: later age at first reproduction (AFR), longer maximum life span, lower fertility (reduce litter size- leads to only two nipples) ◆ Generally primates are found in the tropics (except for humans) ➔ What is the comparative approach? ◆ Answers functional questions by comparing groups of related species to determine how differences in behavior reflect differences in ecological conditions ➔ Problems with early comparative studies? ◆ Alternate hypotheses weren’t adequately examined ◆ Ecological variables aren’t accurately quantified ◆ Trouble navigating cause/effect relationships ◆ Differences aren’t adaptive in every situation, some differences may be from alternate solutions to the same ecological problem ◆ Non-independence of data (problems with having a common ancestor) ➔ What improvements have been made to the comparative studies approach? ◆ Behavior and morphology are measured on a continuous scale ◆ Many alternate hypotheses are now considered by using specific statistical methods ◆ Comparisons are now performed using a phylogenetic approach on the genus level instead of individual species to minimize problems of non-independence (problems regarding coming from a common ancestor)


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