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Geography Week 5 North America

by: Annah Shrader

Geography Week 5 North America GEOG 1030-01

Annah Shrader
GPA 3.705

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture over North America on 9/26
World Geography
Robert C. Hoff
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1030-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Robert C. Hoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World Geography in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Geography Week 5 9/26/16 North America North America consists of two countries: United States of America and Canada. Similarities in the Countries:  Have high standards of living for the most part. (Not without limited poverty such as Indian Reservations or inner cities).  Both are founded and filled with European roots and descent.  Both, especially the United States, are highly urbanized and advanced.  Both are pluralistic societies. Differences in the Countries:  The United States is smaller than Canada, both ranking second and third largest land masses in the world.  The United States has environments that are much more diverse than Canada’s. For example, USA contains every climate there is except equatorial.  The United States was settled from the east to the west. Canada was settled from the south to the north mostly.  The population of Canada is 36 million while the USA has a population around 324 million.  Canada is one land mass while the USA is fragmented into 48 joined states, but two that are completely separated: Alaska and Hawaii. The USA also owns a number of islands and Puerto Rico.  Canada has two official languages, French and English. The USA has no official language but speaks predominantly English. The Physiographical Regions of North America:  The Appalachian Mountains are located in the east of the realm.  The Rocky Mountains are located in the West of the realm.  In between both sets of mountains is a vast plain (The Great Plain) that is open to the artic wind as well as the warmer wind coming from the Atlantic and Gulf. The combination of the winds creates massive thunderstorms and lightening.  There is the Canadian Shield where a lot of resources have been discovered.  There are the interior lowlands.  The Pacific Mountains run up the California coast well into Canada. Climate Patterns:  The temperature generally increases going north to south of the realm.  Precipitation generally decreases going east to west until you hit the Pacific coast. o Rain Shadow Effect: This is due to the Pacific mountains and Rockies shifting the humid air masses from the Pacific Ocean upwards and causing it to rain over the mountainous areas. There is no water left going further inland which causes drought and drier climates. This rain shadow effect occurs in Hawaii, too. o Acidic soils are due to heavy rainfall in an area and produce different produce and fruit. You can grow blueberries in Chattanooga but not in Nebraska due to soil type. Population:  150 years ago people in America mostly lived on farms in rural villages. The Industrial Revolution hit the Americas in the late 1800s and caused industrialization and rise of cities. People began moving towards the economic opportunities that were greater than their farms.  The population of the USA is still reflective of colonial colonization. o The French are still located in South Eastern Canada. The English were further south in the USA’s northeast.  1890s is the generally accepted time period for when the USA came to a frontier closure, meaning they stopped reaching westward because they obtained it all. It was when the Indians were pacified.  As more and more people began coming to America and hearing about the cities, more people moved to them. Cities became densely populated.  In the early 1900s a concept known as deindustrialization began to occur, especially in Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. This is when people are living outside of the city in the suburbs and they take their businesses and lived their lives outside of the city. This is the rise of the periphery. 4 Economic Sectors Review: o Primary Occupations: People who take raw materials away from their natural environments. These are farmers, miners, foresters, and fisherman. o Secondary Occupations: People who take the raw materials from the primary group and make them into usable items for the society. These are manufacturing jobs. o Tertiary Occupations: Sales, business, real estate, banking services. Most jobs are found here. o Quaternary Occupations: Technical information such as IT. This is a newer category added recently for technological advancement. Shapes of Cities:  At first, cities were densely populated and means of transportation were limited. It was in the person’s best interest to live close to the city so that they could walk to wherever they needed to be. Think of a dot that represents all the people in one general place.  As time went on and inventions improved the electric car was invented around the 1880s that allowed people to live near the stop of the electric car route outside of the city, which allowed for easy transportation to their homes and to the city. Imagine an X where the center is the city and the people lived along the lines.  Automobiles rose around the 1920s, but it was not until the 1950s that cars were truly reliable and quick enough to cut travel time. People could live at much greater distances away from the city and still be able to get back easily. Now imagine giant rings circling the cities where people can conveniently spread out.  Then in the 1960s interstates were created which even further allowed people to spread out and still be close to civilization where their needs could be met. More suburbs emerged from this, which caused deindustrialization and commercial businesses to move away from the cities and closer to the people. Migration Process Factors: the century from 1835-1935 had over 75 million Europeans immigrate to the USA.  Push Factors: Things that cause a person to want to get away from where they are currently living. This could be a war, or prejudices, poverty etc.  Pull Factors: These are the good things about another place you would want to move to such as greater economic opportunities.  Information Availability: How much do you know about the potential destination, and is that information reliable?  Is the place better than your current residence?  Distance: Sometimes the less effort of the move the more likely someone is to move. This depends though, because some people are willing to cross entire oceans. Culture Mosaic:  There are diverse uses of languages all over North America. By looking at the name of a specific place, it can act as a clue as to the ethnic backgrounds.  Religion is related to region. New England is mostly Jews and Catholics. Utah is Mormon. The upper Midwest is mostly Lutheran. The Southeast is mostly Baptist, and the southwest is mostly catholic. 9 Regions of North America:  The Northern Frontier: This is the bulk of Canada. This is the largest region listed but is very sparsely populated. It is located in artic climates. This also includes Alaska. The environments contain a lot of Boreal Forests which have a lot of coniferous trees.  The Continental Interior: This is the middle of North America. It has the most success in farming and is a large plain.  The Core: Located in the upper north east, it is the manufacturing belt of America. It is in decline but contains the most populated cities, the best schools, the best transportation and large populations.  The Western Frontier: This is Nevada, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho and Montana. Mostly isolated area with rugged terrain. There are resources to be found but it is hit or miss with success.  The Maritime North East: New Hampshire, Maine, the New Foundland and the Islands off the Atlantic coast of Canada. They are known for fishing.  French Canada: Predominantly French speaking. Quebec tried to secede from Canada back in the 1990s. It was unsuccessful due to the non-French population, but definitely causes centrifugal forces.  The South East: Where we live and what we call the South. It is the most rapidly growing region on the list. There are many urban centers sprouting up.  The South West: This is New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. It is an Anglo- hispanic area with mixed cultures. Texas is economically dominant and huge.  The Pacific Ridge: The western coast running from California to Vancouver. This is the land of opportunity and ethnic diversity.


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