Psych 111, Chapter 5 notes
Psych 111, Chapter 5 notes Psychology 111
Popular in Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Fricke on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Crafton Hills College taught by Sandra B. Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111 in Psychology at Crafton Hills College.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 5: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Two to Six Years 09/27/2016 ▯ Physical Development ▯ I. The Nervous System Between 2-6 years, the brain gains 20-25% of it’s adult weight (2/3 of a pound) Corpus Callosum: a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain o LATERIZATION: The process by which the right and left hemispheres of the brain take on specific functions Begins during prenatal development Right hemisphere controls left side of body and left hemisphere controls right side of body Perception of emotion is generally in the right hemisphere Language is predominately found in left hemisphere HANDEDNESS: the preference for using one hand over the other for basic activities such as eating, throwing, and writing Majority of the world is right handed May be adaptive for survival o More likely to survive combat b/c their weapons were closer to an adversary’s vital organs (heart) Holding a shield on the left arm while fighting would protect their own organs Only 8% of world is left handed Research on twins 20-30% of identical twins have an opposite handed twin associated with language dominance language processing is typically found in the left hemisphere, so most people are righties ▯ II. The Skeletal System OSSIFICATION: the process through which cartilage becomes bone o Can aid in determining a child’s skeletal age: the degree of maturation of the child’s bones o Predicts a child’s height The more cartilage that remains, the taller the child can be expected to grow o Environmental Influences Nutrition Physical stimulation Overeating Food choice Adequate calcium intake Exposure to sunlight Variety of fruits and vegetable Skeletal disorders o Stunting/ Chronic Growth Retardation Linked to delayed cognitive development and poor educational attainment In young girls, it can put them at risk for obstructed labor later on in life ▯ III. The Muscular System Fine Motor Skills o 2 years: place simple shapes into corresponding holes; draw lines o 3 years: hold a crayon properly; build large towers w/ blocks o 4 years: use pencil or pen; begin to use scissors; copy shapes; draw recognizable human forms; button shirts o 5 years: print first name, tie shoes; write numbers Gross Motor Skills o 2 years: jump using both feet; go up and down steps; throw a small ball; kick a large ball; run o 3 years: throw and catch better; stand on one foot; jump over an object o 4 years: skip; climb ladders; hop on one foot; change direction quickly while running o 5 years: ride a bike w/ training wheels; jump 2 or 3 feet forward; climb in precarious places ▯ Cognitive Development ▯ I. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, in which the child begins to think symbolically, that is, with words o The symbolic function substage SYMBOLIC FUNCTION: the first substage of the preoperational period during which the ability to use language gives children a new way of thinking about the world About ages 2-4 INTUITIVE THOUGHT: the second substage of the preoperational period, during which children want to know how and why About ages 4-7 CENTRATION: a quality of thinking in which a person focuses on one aspect or another dimension of an object while disregarding any other dimension CONSERVATION: the understanding that key physical properties of an object remain constant even if the appearance of the object changes EGOCENTRISM: a cognitive quality in which one is centered in one’s own frame of reference Has nothing to do with being selfish ANIMSIM: an egocentric belief that all inanimate objects have qualities associated with humans IRRIVERSABILITY: the belief of preoperational thinkers that objects and events, once changed, can never return to their original state o The intuitive thought substage ARTIFICIALISM: the belief that all objects and events are affected by human influence ▯ II. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD): Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that a person cannot accomplish independently but that can be done with the assistance of a person with more advanced cognitive ability or more experience o Range of optimal learning for children o SCAFFOLDING: the process of assisting a less experienced individual through complex tasks by providing supports, which may be verbal or physical o GUIDED PARTICIPATION: a process in which a more experienced teacher becomes an interactive guide, helping a younger or less experienced person do tasks that thay could not complete dependently Language o PRIVATE SPEECH: a language process in which children talk to themselves as they attempt to perform a task or solve a problem o Piaget’s meaning of private speech COLLECTIVE MONOLOGUE: Piaget’s term for the egocentric private talk that sometimes occurs in a group of children Children talk out loud when in a group w/o intending on communicating w/ each other ▯ III. Information Processing Perspective THEORY OF MIND: the ability to understand that others have mental states and that their thoughts and knowledge may be different from one’s own o A child is learning that others have wishes of their own Why toddlers often tattle on themselves o Theory-of-mind research supports the view that young children are less egocentric than Piaget believed Attention o As children grow, salience is not as important as relevance o Problem solving tasks improve with age Memory o Preschoolers are good at recognizing info but not so much at recalling it ▯ IV. Language Development how does language develop? o Vocabulary spurt or naming explosion: period of most rapid acceleration in vocabulary 500-600 words at age 2 12,000+ when they start school receptive language skill (the ability to understand words) always precedes expressive language skill (ability to use words to express ourselves) OVERGENERALIZE: applying the rules of grammar to cases in which they do not apply “I sitted on the bus.” Noun bias: nouns are most easily understood, so children use them more frequently and earlier than other parts of speech Mostly only applies to English speaking children PRAGMATICS: the social use of communication Speaking politely to adults and relaxed w/ peers Explaining language development o CATEGORIZATION: the process of forming a cognitive compartment, or grouping, based on specific properties “dog”= all four legged furry animals o FAST MAPPING: a process by which a child can relate unknown words to known words, thus rapidly expanding vocabulary Use knowledge of word order and syntax to make sense of unknown words Social & Cross-cultural language development o Chomsky’s language acquisition device (lad): humans are born with an innate mechanism for processing words Critics: Michael Tomasillo FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE APPROACH: the idea that language acquisition is a “need- based” process in which children construct meaning out of a need to understand and a need to be understood o Children learn language b/c they have to The multilingual environment o 1 in 5 U.S. citizens speak a language other than English at home children who speak more than one language tend to understand words more quickly and have larger vocabularies ▯ All the Systems Working Together ▯ I. Play Mildred Parten o Age affects the way they play with others Four types of play, categorized by social function NONSOCIAL PLAY: noninteractive play in which a child focuses on an object & appears unconnected to others, or acts as an onlooker, watching others play w/o joining in Typically between 1-2 years 2 forms o solitary play: child plays w/o interacting w/ others o onlooker play: child watches and comments on others’ play but does not join in PARALLEL PLAY: a form of play in which children appear to be together but are not interacting with one another ASSOCIATIVE PLAY: a form of play in which children interact with each other and share the same materials, but do not work together towards the same goal Typically occurs around 4-5 years COOPERATIVE PLAY: a form of play in which children interact to work toward a common goal Team sports, like soccer or baseball Piaget’s theory of cognitive development o FUNCTIONAL PLAY: a form of play that involves repetitive movements and simple exploratory activity, usually seen during a child’s first two years Correlates with sensorimotor period Aka practice play or sensorimotor play Shaking a rattle; clapping hands o CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY: a form of play that involves the creation of new objects, often by combining already existing objects Preschoolers making forts out of sheets o SYMBOLIC PLAY: a form of play that begins around age 3 in which children use objects as symbols Aka pretend play A tennis racket as a guitar o Games with rules Help children learn cooperation and competition Benefits of play o ROUGH AND TUMBLE PLAY: a form of physical play, such as wrestling, tumbling, and running o Releases energy o Allows children to be creative o Increases muscle flexibility, cognitive abilities, and emotional maturity o Facilitates competence, confidence, and resilience o Undirected play often mimics the adult interactions they observe ▯ II. Early Childhood Education Most 3-4 y/o attend a “preschool” o HEADSTART: a national program that seeks to promote school- readiness among disadvantaged children through the provision of educational, nutritional, and social services Effectiveness of early-childhood education o Headstart 1965 “War on Poverty” enhances children’s cognitive ability & social competence duration of enrollment start at age 3 & stay for 2 years Inclusive early-childhood education o Federal Legislation requires that children with special needs be included to the greatest extent possible in the same early childhood education programs that serve children w/o needs INCLUSION: an approach to educating students w/ special educational needs based on the idea that all individuals have a right to be educated in regular classroom settings AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and interaction, and repetitive behaviors Early detection & intervention can improve the cognitive outcomes & adaptive behavior of children diagnosed with ASD o INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PLANS (IEPs): a written statement that defines the individualized educational goals of a child w/ a disability ▯ III. Common Health and Safety Concerns of Early Childhood Obesity o Approx. 1/3 of U.S. kids are considered overweight or obese BODY MASS INDEX (BMI): a measure used to determine healthy body weight that is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in pounds) by the square of their height (in inches) and multiplying the result by 703 “overweight” = between 85 and 95 percentile OBESITY: having a BMI in the 95 percentile or higher Causes o Genetic predisposition & sedentary lifestyle o ADVERTISEMENTS!!!! Health risk factors into adulthood: Heart disease Osteoporosis Diabetes Impaired liver function Asthma Psychological issues like depression and low self esteem Prevention Step 1: Diet (food choices are more important than exercise in losing weight) Step 2: Activity (at least 1 hour of moderate P.A. a day; reduce “screen time” to no more than 2 hours a day Step 3: Family Obesity across cultures o Socioeconomic status also relates to childhood obesity Low income families are at higher risk Not the case in China; high income are at higher risk UNINTENTIONAL INJURY: any type of physical trauma that is determined to have been caused by circumstances other than abuse or maltreatment o Remains leading cause of death among young children in the U.S. Motor vehicle collisions being the most common Lead poisoning o Aka the silent killer o Extreme cases Seizures, comas, mental retardation, death o Likely cases Cognitive damage Learning disabilities ADHD ▯ ▯
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