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BIOS 1700 Notes Week 5

by: Hannah White

BIOS 1700 Notes Week 5 BIOS 1700

Marketplace > Ohio University > Biological Sciences > BIOS 1700 > BIOS 1700 Notes Week 5
Hannah White
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Energy, Gibbs Free Energy, and Enzymes
Biological Sciences I: Molecules and Cells
Soichi Tanda
Class Notes
Biology, Science




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah White on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1700 at Ohio University taught by Soichi Tanda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences I: Molecules and Cells in Biological Sciences at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Tuesday, September 20, 2016 BIOS 1700 with Dr. Tanda Lecture 12 and 13 Chapter 6: Making Life Work - Laws of Thermodynamics • 1st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy can change from one form to another but the amount of energy must remain the SAME • Energy before EQUALS energy after = • Energy is neither created or destroyed - Living organisms pick up energy from the environment and transform it into something that the organism can use for their lives. • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - Entropy Disorder of the universe increases when energy transforms • • When energy changes form some energy is lost as heat Heat = - Concepts of Energy • Potential Energy - Stored (still) energy - The higher up the higher the potential energy - Top of a roller coaster Kinetic Energy • - Moving energy - Going down a roller coaster 1 Tuesday, September 20, 2016 • Covalent Bonds have Potential Energy - The bonds have potential energy - Breaking the bonds allows you to retrieve the energy - ATP • Universal form of energy in living organisms • Organisms create ATP from food/sunlight by breaking apart chemical bonds of polymers • We make energy for muscle contraction by breaking up a chemical bond in ATP • The bonds linking phosphate groups have high potential energy - Metabolism • Retrieving and using energy from the environment • Energy transformations from one form to another (goes both ways) to maintain life Consumption of ATP Production of ATP 2 Tuesday, September 20, 2016 - Chemical Reactions • The breaking and making of chemical bonds - Reactants: molecules that are combined - Products: what the molecules are combined into - Transformations = chemical reactions - Most reactions can go both ways Reactants become products and products become reactants • - CO 2+ H 0 = H 2CO 3 - Gibbs Free Energy • The energy available to do work Heat = Gibbs Free Energy • Gibbs Free Energy obeys the laws of thermodynamics - Each molecule in a reaction has the following: • Gibbs Free Energy (G) • Enthalpy (H): Total energy available • Entropy (S): Degree of disorder • Absolute Temperature (T): Kelvin - Don’t worry about entropy or temperature • Remember the following equations for Gibbs Free Energy: - H = G - Net G ( G) = G (of the products) — G (of the reactant) • Net G describes a gain or loss of ATP - A GAIN of ATP creates a — G (negative net G) 3 Tuesday, September 20, 2016 - A LOSS of ATP creates a + G (positive net G) - Endergonic Reactions • Non-spontaneous • Requires energy • Hard to do - i.e Walking up Jeff Hill • Creates a + G - Creates a positive net gain of gibbs free energy because during the reaction, molecule 1 release energy to become molecule 2 • Loss of ATP; Energy used for reaction + G - Exergonic Reaction • Spontaneous • Very little energy required • Easy to do - i.e Walking down Jeff Hill • Creates a — G - Creates a negative net gain of gibbs free energy because during the reaction, molecule 1 must add energy to make molecule 2 • Environment gains ATP 4 Tuesday, September 20, 2016 — G - Polymers have more energy than monomers - Polymers have less disorder than monomers - Catabolism • Polymers to monomers • G 1> G 2 • — G = G 2— G 1 - G 1 is bigger than 2 • Gain Energy - Anabolism • Monomers to polymers • G 2> G 1 + G = G 2 — G 1 • - G 2is bigger than G1 • Loss of energy • Enzymes - Biological catalysts - Activation Energy: Initial energy boost required to start a reaction - Enzymes: proteins with catalytic energy 5 Tuesday, September 20, 2016 • Reduce activation energy - This creates a FASTER reaction • Reactions in a Cell - Substrate (reactant) + Enzyme = SE - Product + Enzyme = PE • S + E = SE = PE = P + E - The critical 1st step is the binding of the substrate to an active or catalytic site of an enzyme • Enzymes are very specific in most cases • The active site must be kept in good condition or the enzyme won’t work at all Proper folding is essential for enzyme function • - Shows how important tertiary structure is • An enzyme is a catalyst because it is not consumes in a chemical reaction • Clicker Questions - The assembly of glucose into starch, a long chain of glucose is referred to as • An anabolic process - The energy of ATP is primarily stored in covalent bonds between • Phosphate groups - Gibbs free energy is referred to as: • Energy available to do work 6 Monday, September 26, 2016 BIOS 1700 with Dr. Tanda Lecture 14 Chapter 6: Energy and Metabolism - How do we demonstrate that an enzyme can ind to a substrate? • β-galactosidase Experiment - A container is separated into two compartments by a selectively permeable membrane. - Part 1: • Radioactively labeled β-galactosidase (S) is added to compartment 1 and the movement of S is followed by measuring the radioactivity levels in the two compartments. - Over time, the level of radioactivity is the same in the two compartments - Part 2: • Radioactively labeled substrate is added to compartment 1 and the enzyme (E) is added to compartment 2. The movement of S is followed by measuring the level of radioactivity in the two compartments 1 Monday, September 26, 2016 - Over time, the level of radioactivity is greater in compartment 2 than in compartment 1. - Conclusion: • If the substrate diffuses from compartment to compartment 2, forms a couple with the enzyme and then is not released because the enzyme cannot catalyze the conversion of substrate to product. - E and S form a complex • Although enzyme-substrate association is very specific, chemically similar molecules can fool this specificity. • Enzymes not only bind to substrates but also other molecules such as inhibitors and activators • Inhibition: reversible and irreversible • β-galactosidase binding to IPTG (fake substrate) is an example of irreversible inhibition because the IPTG will never be released - Reversible Inhibition • “Fake” substrate can be released • Two types - Competitive • Enzyme has 1 active site which can bind to either a substrate or an inhibitor - Substrate and inhibitor compete to be able to bind to active site - Ratio of substrate to inhibitor MATTERS 2 Monday, September 26, 2016 - Noncompetitive • Enzyme has an active site and an inhibitor site - Substrate binds to active site - Inhibitor binds to inhibitor/allosteric site - Ratio of substrate to inhibitors DOESN’T matter - The number of inhibitors MATTERS 3 Monday, September 26, 2016 • Allosteric Regulation - Allosteric site can regulate the activity of an active site • If an inhibitor binds to the allosteric site and does not allow the substrate to attach (by changing active site shape) then it is NEGATIVE regulation - Means there is more inhibitors than substrates - This inhibits the active site - Conserves Energy • If an inhibitor binds to the allosteric site and allows the substrate to attach then it is POSITIVE regulation - More substrate than inhibitor - Activates active site 4 Monday, September 26, 2016 - Clicker Questions • The portion of an enzyme that binds specifically to the substrate is referred to as the ____ of the enzyme - Active site • Which of the following types of inhibitor permanently alters the enzyme it inhibits? - Irreversible inhibitor • Avery and his colleagues wanted to understand what biological molecule(s) convert(s) nonvirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae to a virulent one. So, they treated extract of the heat-killed virulent strain with various enzymes prior to mixing a nonvirulent strain. They used RNase, protease, and glycosidases (carbohydrate- digesting enzymes). In all cases, the nonvirulent bacteria became the virulent strain. From THIS result, we can conclude that ( ) is (are) the genetic material. Consider all possible molecules. - DNA and or Lipids 5


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