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Sociology Chapter 4 Notes

by: Cassandra Danhof

Sociology Chapter 4 Notes SOCI 1301

Marketplace > Lone Star College-CyFair > Sociology > SOCI 1301 > Sociology Chapter 4 Notes
Cassandra Danhof
Lone Star College-CyFair
GPA 3.21

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These note go over the types of societies, the theoretical perspectives on society, and the social constructions of reality,
Principles of Sociology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Danhof on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1301 at Lone Star College-CyFair taught by Pvorsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principles of Sociology in Sociology at Lone Star College-CyFair.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Sociology Chapter 4: Society and Social Interaction Learning Objectives  Important Terms  4.1 Types of Societies Describe the difference between preindustrial, industrial,  Hunter­Gatherer Societies:  and postindustrial societies  Societies that depend on hunting  ● Preindustrial societies are small, rural  wild animals and gathering  societies dependent largely on local resources;  uncultivated plants for survival economic production was limited to human  Pastoral Societies: Societies  production, and there were very few specialized  based around the domestication  jobs  of animals  ■ Ex. Hunter­ Agricultural Societies: Societies  gatherer, pastoral, agricultural,  that rely on farming as a way of  horticultural, and feudal societies life  ○ Hunter­gatherer societies  Feudal Societies: Societies that  were around about 10,000­12,000 years  operate on a strict hierarchical  ago, based on tribes that traveled around  system of power based around  for food.  land ownership and protection ○ Pastoral societies began  Information Societies: Societies  around 7,500 years ago, and heavily relied based on the production of non  on the cultivation of plants and the  material goods and services  domestication of animals. Although they  Industrial Societies: Societies  were still nomadic, they could make a  characterized by a reliance on  surplus of goods that could be traded with  mechanized labor to create  other local groups  material goods  ○ Horticultural societies, like  pastoral societies, were based around the  cultivation/domestication of  plants/animals. The difference between  these two societies is that this one stayed  by water sources. They were the basis for  the first revolution in human survival. ○ Agricultural societies  (around 3,00 BCE) created more  permanent tools for their farmland,  rotations of crops, and fertilizer, which led  to the Agricultural Revolution. stand the  role of environment on pre industrial  societies. They now had time to focus on  more thoughtful activities like music,  poetry, and philosophy, creating more of a civilization. They also developed more  social classes, and  ownership/preservation became more of a concern.  ○ Feudal societies (9th c.)  were based on the power of land. The  nobility (or lords) owned the land, and  these pieces of land were protected by the lesser classes in return for resources. The  land was passed down generationally  ● Industrial societies began in Europe during the 18th c. with the rise of technological  innovation. Steam powered, textile mills,  mechanical seeders, and gas lighters were  especially important tools to recognize.  Industrialization created urban life, diversity, and  an emphasis on upward mobility rather than  family tradition. Sociologists emerged during the  18th and 19th centuries. Power moved from “old  money” to “new money” with new businessmakers like the Rockefellers  ● The post industrial society has an  emphasis on information society; key innovators  being Steve Jobs and Bill Gates. Social classes  are divided by an access to education, which is  essential to succeed in an information society. Understand how technology impacts social development ● Technology impact social development  because it leaves behind a group of people who  don’t have access to the education necessary to  succeed.  4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society Describe Durkheim's functionalist view of society Collective Conscience: The  ● Durkheim’s perspective on sociology  communal beliefs, morals, and  emphasizes the necessary interconnectivity of all  atticturdes of a society of its elements; in other words,  a collective  Social Integration: How strongly a  society works differently than just an individual  person is connected to his or her  person. Depending on the society, they may had  group different morals or beliefs that coincide inside the  Mechanical Solidarity: A type of  group (known as communal consciousness) social order maintained by the  ● All parts have a purpose in society; even  collective consciousness of a  the social deviant members of society help  culture  emphasize societal norms  Organic Solidarity:A type of social  ● Found a failing society order maintained by the collective  ○ In preindustrial societies,  consciousness of a culture  we maintained social order through a  Anomie: A situation in which  collective consciousness. Since everyone  society no longer has the support  does the same things, they are bound to  of a firm collective consciousness  have the same ideas Bourgeoisie: The owners of the  ○ In industrial societies is  means of production in a society based on the acceptances of  Proletariat: The laborers in a  social/economic differences, since the  society world became so specialized  Capitalism: A way of organizing  ■ This  an economy so that the things  specialization can lead to  that are used to make and  alienations of different people from  transport products (such as land,  others, because they have no  oil, factories, ships, etc.) are  common ground  owned by individual people and  Understand the conflict theorist view of society companies rather than by the  government  Alienation:An individual’s isolation from his society, his work, and his  sense of self False Consciousness: A person’s  beliefs and ideology that are in  conflict with her best interests  Class Consciousness: The  awareness of one’s rank in  society Rationalization: A belief that  modern society should be built  around logican d efficiency rather  than morality or tradition Iron Cage: A situation in which an  ● Conflict in society is the primary motivation individual is trapped by social  for change. The proletariat, the working class who institutions  want change, and the bourgeoisie, the owners of  society ● The industrialization of society made  owners of industries more exploitative on the  working class  Explain Marx’s concepts of the class and alienation ● Alienation of the product of one’s labor: ○ Workers do not know/care  the end product of what they are working  on; only that the job is available ○ This is unlike the pre  industrial revolution, because people saw  the products they made, like a basket they wove themselves ● Alienation from the process of one’s labor ○ Employees are not allowed  the conditions necessary to have creativity for their means of production.  ○ Like a McDonald's worker  is not allowed to add their own spices to  the fries, everything is dictated by the  bourgeoisie (owners)  ● Alienation from others ○ Workers are competing  rather than cooperating for raises,  bonuses, and job security ● Alienation from one’s self ○ Because there's not tie  between a worker and their labor, their is  no longer a sense of self.  They cannot  take pride in their job because they have  no creativity outlet or individuality in their  jobs; are a clog in a machine  Identify how symbolic interactionists understand society ● Fear that industrialization would have a  great effect on individuals  ● Both status (noneconomic factors like  education and religion) and class (economic  factors) have an effect on an individual’s power ● Modern society is based on rationalism,  and capitalism is part of that  ○ Can have negative effects  when taken to the extreme ● The iron cage leads to a disenchantment  of the world.  ○ Ex. Even though there are  more chain restaurants than local eateries, is that what everyone wants?  4.3 Social Constructions of Reality Understand the sociological concept of reality as a social  Habitualization: The idea that  construct society is constructed by us and  ● Society can be seen as a construct  those before us, as it is followed  because it derives from the habitualization of  like a habit  society. We create habits in society and repeat  Institutionalization: The act of  them because that is how they work implanting a convention or norm  ○ Ex. You call your school  into society building a school because someone else  Thomas Theorem: How subjective called it a school. It is there as a school  reality can drive events to develop now, and it was there as a school before  in accordance with that reality,  you when it was first created  despite being originally  ● People’s behavior is constructed by  unsupported by objective reality.  subjective reality rather than objective reality  Self­Fulfilling Prophecy: An idea  (thomas theorem)  that becomes true when acted  ○ Like a self­fulfilling  upon prophecy, where like if someone has been Status: The responsibilities and  called a bum all of their life they are most  benefits that person experiences  likely going to become a bum according to her or her ran and  Define roles and describe their places in people’s daily  role in society  interactions  Ascribed Statuses: The status  ● Roles are behaviors we recognize in  outside an individual's control,  eachother and play a role in social status such as sex or race  ○ Ex. reading a textbook puts Achieved Statuses: The status a  you in the role of a student; talking to your  person chooses, such as  mom puts you in the role of a  education or income  son/daughter Role­Set: An array of roles  ● Your status can be ascribed (your race) or attached to a particular status  achieved (your education) and within these  Role­Strain: Stress that occurs  statuses, you have a role set attached to it  when too much is required of a  ● When you get stressed about a specific  single role  role, like when you are overwhelmed by a test,  Role­Conflict:A situation when  you have role strain. When two or more roles are  one or more of an individual’s  contradictory, like worker and mother, you have  roles clash  role conflict Role Performance: The  ○ An example or role conflict  expression of a role  between worker and mother is if your  Looking Glass Self: Our reflection  child’s school calls you about your sick  of how we think we appear to  child in the middle of the work day  others  Explain how individuals present themselves and perceive themselves in a social context ● We present ourselves  through role  performance and impression management.  Impression management is what we hope others  will see in us, and role performance is what we do to seem like we are such way ○ Impression management is  important in symbolic interactionism ■ Impression  can be made in how people dress,  how people interact with others,  etc.


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