Music 302, Week 5 Notes
Music 302, Week 5 Notes Mus 302
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 302 at Humboldt State University taught by H. Kaufman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Week 5 Music 302: Music in World Culture Jali Instruments 1. Balafon (wood sound) -Xylophone with gourd resonators (to create the buzz) used to use spider egg filaments on the gourds, now use rolling paper or thin plastic -Played with gum mallets on keys of different lengths -sit or stand 2. Kontingo ('Ngoni more common) -5 string lute with a skin face skin used to be snakeskin, now is goatskin strings used to be horsehair, now are fishing line -portable -plucked -top string is the highest pitch and usually vice versa -usually played sitting -neck goes through the body of the instruments -precursor to the banjo (which was brought to the U.S. through the slave trade) 3. Kora (unique to Mande) -21 strings with a raised bridge -hybrid of the harp and lyre -3 octave range -gourd body -cowskin face -both hands needed to play -pluck -metal plate for buzz Basic Song Components Voice Styles 1. Sataro -improvised declamatory style--sounds like speech -prophetic proclamations -proverbs -wit/wisdom -root of rap 2. Donkilo -pre-composed basic melody of a song--sounds like singing Instrumental 1. Birmintingo -improvised virtuosic instrumental--interludes 2. Kumbengo -short, pre-composed, repeated instrumental patterns (ostinato) Key Mande Concepts 1. Power in words/wisdom; verbal artistry greatly admired 2. Jali--male or female; more men play and more women sing -hereditary -professionals and specialists -soloists or small groups -use of core and elaboration parts The Mbuti/Bambuti -Cultural group--Mbuti or 'forest people' -Small stature--adults are usually under five feet, the shortest known humans good for navigating the forest quickly and easily -Ituri Rainforest most populated with Mbuti -Congo Basin -Don't hold on to things, even language 4 Characteristics 1. Nomadic: move around a lot because of resource depletion, hunting, and weather 2. Hunter-gatherers: antelope and birds using bows, spears, and nets 3. Travel: live in small to medium groups of 20-40 people can be traced to a single lineage 4. Egalitarian: All members are socially and politically equal no authority/central government specialists certain roles--everyone is needed, all work together Music -No musical specialists -Few musical instruments--see possessions as anchors that hold back -Used to communicate with the spiritual world -Two main categories of music: 1. Vocal: most valued, all participate -Hocket: interlocking pitches between two or more sounds sources combined to create single melody/part pitch interlock creates melody -Yodeling: rapid alteration between normal and falsetto voice 2. Instrumental: solo/small group examples: flute, lukembi, musical sticks, water drum, forest harp -Characteristics used in instrumental and vocal: 1. Interlock and ostinato (short repeated patterns) 2. Call and response (leadership can shift -Two main types of music: 1. Self-Delectative: music for pleasure of the performer--usually instrumental 2. Communal/Ceremonial: Usually tied to ritual function and usually vocal -If something goes wrong, the Mbuti believe the forest is asleep and awaken it with song and ritual example: Molimo Ceremony (major ritual) 1. Give thanks to the forest 2. Find balance after a bad event Molimo trumpet: long tubular end, blown aerophone communicates with forest spirits Mbuti Mande -egalitarian society -hierarchical society -no classes -sula and nyamalo classes -emphasize singing with little poetry -grand singing traditions with word or word crafting crafting, proverbs, poetry; lineage/meaning important -no specialists; everyone participates -specialists and non-specialists -more polyphonic, more voice -more homophonic, use instruments Shona People -Cultural Group -Currently in Zimbabwe, parts of Mozambique and Zambia -Ethnolinguistic group--Bantu -Zimbabwe--stone built (Great Zimbabwe) -Harare (formerly Salisbury)--capital of Zimbabwe
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