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PSYC 1310, Notes Week 4

by: Swider Notetaker

PSYC 1310, Notes Week 4 Psyc

Swider Notetaker

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Notes for chapter 4 and 6.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Leonard
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Swider Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc at East Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 4 Vocabulary Central Nervous System (CNS) ­ The brain and spinal cord.  Spinal Cord  ­ A long cylinder of neural tissue extending from the medulla of the brain down to the  middle of the back; part of the central nervous system.  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  ­ The nervous exiting the central nervous system that carry sensory and motor information  to and from the rest of the body.  Brainstem  ­ The part of the brain containing the midbrain, pons and medulla.  Medulla  ­ The brainstem structure that lies just above the spinal cord.  Pons  ­ A part of the brainstem located between the medulla and the midbrain.  Cerebellum ­ A structure attached to the brainstem that participates in skilled movement, and in  humans, complex cognitive processing.  Midbrain ­ The part of the brainstem that lies between the pons and the cerebral hemispheres.  Reticular Formation  ­ A collection of structures located along the midline of the brainstem that participate in  mood, arousal, and sleep.  Thalamus  ­ A subcortical structure involved with processing of sensory information, states of arousal, learning and memory.  Basal Ganglia  ­ A collection of subcortical structures that participate in the control of movement.  Hypothalamus ­ A subcortical structure that participates in the regulation of thirst, temperature, hunger,  sexual behavior and aggression.  Hippocampus  ­ A subcortical structure that participates in memory.  Cingulate Cortex ­ A subcortical structure above the corpus callosum. It’s anterior (forward) segment  participates in decision making and emotion, and it’s posterior (rear) segment participates in memory and visual processing.  Amygdala  ­ A subcortical structure located in the temporal lobe believed to participate in emotional  processing.  Nucleus Accumbens  ­ A subcortical structure that participates in reward and addition.   Corpus Callosum  ­ A wide band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres.  Cerebral Cortex ­ The thin layer of neurons covering the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres.  Frontal Lobe  ­ The most forward of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, location of the primary motor  cortex and areas responsible for some of the most complex cognitive processes.  Parietal Lobe  ­ The lobe of the cerebral cortex that lies at the top of the head between the frontal and the  occipital lobes, location of the primary somato­sensory cortex.  Occipital Lobe  ­ The lobe of the cerebral cortex located at the brain; location of the primary visual cortex.  Temporal Lobe  ­ The lobe of the cerebral cortex that curves around the side of each hemisphere, location  of the primary auditory cortex.  Prefrontal Cortex  ­ The most forward part of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex.  Orbitofrontal Cortex  ­ A part of the prefrontal cortex located right behind the yes that participates in impulse  control.  Somatic Nervous System  ­ The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings sensory information to the central  nervous system and transmits commands to the muscles.  Autonomic Nervous System  ­ The division of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of glands, organs  and smooth muscle.  Sympathetic Nervous System  ­ The division of the autonomic nervous system that coordinates arousal.  Parasympathetic Nervous System  ­ The part of the autonomic nervous system associated with rest, repair, and energy  storage.  Enteric Nervous System  ­ A division of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerve cells embedded in the  lining of the gastrointestinal system.  Endocrine System  ­ A system responsible for the release of hormones into the bloodstream.  Neuron  ­ A cell of the nervous system that is specialized for sending and receiving neural  messages.  Cell Body  ­ The large, central mass of a neuron, containing the nucleus.  Axon  ­ The branch of a neuron that is usually responsible for transmitting information to other  neurons.  Dendrite  ­ A branch from the neural cell body that usually receives input from other neurons.  Myelin  ­ The insulating material covering some axons.  Action Potential  ­ The electrical signal arising in a neurons axon.  Resting Potential  ­ The measure of the electrical charge across a neural membrane when the neuron is not  processing information.  Synapse  ­ A point of communication between two neurons.  Neurotransmitter  ­ A chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse.  Receptor  ­ A special channel in the membrane of a neuron that interacts with neurotransmitters  released by other neurons.  Reuptake  ­ A process in which molecules of a neurotransmitter in the synaptic gap are returned to the axon terminal from which they were released.  Chapter 6 Vocabulary  Consciousness  ­ A state of awareness.  Self­Awareness  ­ The special understanding of the self as distinct from other stimuli.  Sleep  ­ A normal state of consciousness characterized by reduced awareness of external stimuli.  Waking  ­ A normal state of consciousness characterized by alertness and awareness of external  stimuli.  Circadian Rhythm  ­ A daily biological rhythm.  Biological Clock  ­ An internal mechanism that provides an approximate schedule for various physical  processes.  Major Depressive Disorder with Seasonal Pattern  ­ A mood disorder in which depression occurs regularly at the same time each year, usually during the winter months; formerly known as seasonal affective disorder (sad).  Beta Wave  ­ A waveform of 15 to 30 cycles per second recorded by electroencephalogram that usually indicates alert waking.  Alpha Wave  ­ A waveform of 9 to 12 cycles per second recorded by electroencephalogram that usually  indicates relaxed waking.  Gamma Wave  ­ A wave form of more than 30 cycles per second recorded by electroencephalogram that  indicates attention to sensory input.  Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep  ­ The components of sleep characterized by theta and delta wave activity, as recorded by  electroencephalogram, and deep physical relaxation.  Theta Wave  ­ A waveform of 4 to 7 cycles per second recorded by electroencephalogram that is a  characteristic of lighter stages of non­rapid eye movement speech.  Delta Wave  ­ A waveform of 1 to 4 cycles per second recorded by electroencephalogram that usually  indicates deep non­rapid eye movement sleep.  Dreaming  ­ A mental state that usually occurs during sleep that features visual imagery.  Lucid Dreaming  ­ A conscious awareness of dreaming accompanied by the ability to control the content of  the dream.  Sleep Terror  ­ A sleep disorder occurring in non­rapid eye movement sleep in which the sleeper wakes  suddenly in great distress but without experiencing the imagery of a nightmare.  Insomnia  ­ A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to either initiate or maintain normal sleep.  Narcolepsy  ­ A sleep disorder characterized by the intrusion of rapid eye movement phenomena into  waking.  Sleep Apnea  ­ A sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing with asleep.  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  ­  A sleep disorder in which an otherwise healthy infant dies while asleep.  Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) ­ A disorder characterized by the involuntary movement of an extremity, usually one leg.  Coma  ­ An abnormal state of deep unconsciousness.  Vegetative State (VS)  ­ An abnormal state following brain injury featuring wakefulness without consciousness.  Near­Death Experience  ­ An altered state of consciousness reported by people were close to death because of  cardiac or other medical problems that features out­of­body experiences, light­at­the­end­ of­a­tunnel perceptions, and a state of calmness.  Seizure  ­ An abnormal level of brain activation with a sudden onset.  Psychoactive Drug  ­ Any drug with the capability of altering a person’s state of consciousness.  Tolerance  ­ The need to administer greater quantities of a drug to achieve the same subjective effect.  Withdrawal  ­ Physical responses to the removal of some habitually administered drugs.  Addiction  ­ A compulsive physical or psychological dependence on a substance, or activity that  continues in spite of negative consequences. Hallucinogen  ­ A drug that stimulates the experience of false perception.  Stimulant  ­ Any drug that increases the activity of the nervous system.  Hypnosis  ­ An altered state of consciousness characterized by relaxation and increased suggestibility. Meditation  ­ A voluntary alteration of consciousness characterized by positive emotion and absence of thought. 


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