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Western Civilization 101 Unit 2: Greece Notes

by: Angie Jacobs

Western Civilization 101 Unit 2: Greece Notes History 101-04

Marketplace > Southeastern Louisiana University > History > History 101-04 > Western Civilization 101 Unit 2 Greece Notes
Angie Jacobs
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These notes cover what is going to be on our next exam. In addition, these notes also go hand-in-hand with the Unit 2 Word List
Western Civilization
Angie Anderson
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Jacobs on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 101-04 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Angie Anderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Western Civilization 101, Section 4 Notes Opening Statement: Hi guys! I'm so excited that you're viewing my notes! I am an Elite Notetaker on StudySoup! I'll be posting notes weekly and I'll post study guides at least FOUR (4) days before all exams. All of my notes I upload come DIRECTLY from my own notes. I do provide tutoring as well so if you have any questions, feel free to email me: or th Unit 2: Greece {Tuesday, September 13 , 2016}  As we start to learn about Ancient Greece, we observe the movement of civilizations and the geography of the land which surrounds them: o The people start to move Northwest (NW), closer to the Aegean & Ionian Sea o To the East of Greece is the Aegean Sea, and to the West is the Ionian Sea.  The southern part of Greece that is barely attached is known as the Peloponnesus Peninsula.  Way up North, there is Thessaly, which housed Mt. Olympus. (where the Gods supposedly lived, according to Greek Mythology) o Composed of mostly plains, which were good for raising horses.  Mountains that are found in these areas/regions cause the city-states to develop SEPARATELY and the people of these regions, sometimes, fought each other. o Macedonia is found above Thessaly and Thrace is found above Troy. (Consult map) Minoan Civilization  People who were found on the island of Crete, are known as the Minoans. o Named after Minos, a legendary King and son of Zeus.  Hence, the mythical tale of Minos, the Minotaur & the Labyrinth. (Minotaur: Half-man, half-bull)  The Minoans were largely unknown until the 1900s, (turn of the century) when Sir Arthur Evans uncovers ruins of a great palace, Knossos. o Found a "working" toilet, very advanced. o Had elaborate drainage and ventilation systems. o Had a "swimming" pool.  Their former location? UNKNOWN. (Where did they come from?)  Minoan writing: clay tablets unearthed known as Linear A o Probably influenced by Egyptian writing o Have not deciphered Linear A  The Minoans were peaceful traders; they had a navy to use for trade o There was no evidence of defensive tactics: (No walls to keep people out!) o Were very prosperous in their "Golden Age" which allowed them time for fun: "Bull Leaping"  Bulls may have represented the power of earthquakes  Women were equal to men  Had lots of games, sports, built stone theater  Built stone roads  Their religion was matriarchal; based on the FEMALE. Basically, their Chief "God" was, in fact, a Goddess.  Greeks referred to the Minoans as barbarians...any non-Hellenic language was regarded as barbaric o Around 1400 B.C., the Minoan civilization collapses  Theory: nearby island of Thera, known as Santorini today, had a volcanic eruption, which could have caused tsunamis that flooded Crete.  Weakened the Minoans so much that it allowed the, more warlike, Mycenaeans to dominate. Mycenaean Civilization  Indo-European; spoke the earliest form of Greek o Famous archaeological site of Mycenae  German archaeologist, Schliemann, started digging in Greece around 1876. (He was an amateur who didn't catalog his findings in a professional way)  Wanted to prove the writings of Homer: The Iliad & The Odyssey  Claimed to have found the death mask of Agamemnon—brother to King of Sparta o Story of Agamemnon: wife of King of Sparta, Helen, had been kidnapped by Prince of Troy (key city at the time), and Agamemnon gathered an army against Troy, known as Trojan War. o Mycenaean writing: Linear B- deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1952. o Evidence of defensive tactics (walls), civilization crashed about 1200 B.C Dorians  Group of Northern Greeks. Indo-European o Creates the Dark Ages  No major architecture  Development of writing towards the end of the period due to Homer. His writings were very important and used to teach kids  Early as 776 B.C., Greeks celebrates first Olympics (Thursday, September 20 , 2016)  Married women could not attend Olympics  Each athlete represented themselves  Olympics honored Greek God, Zeus  Women had their own "games" representing Hera Archaic Age (750-500 B.C)  Emergence of city-states/ or polis, new military system, and major Greek movement/civilization  City-states not unified, were different from one another o Acropolis: built in the center of city-state, which is built high upon a hill  In the beginning, only adult male citizens could affiliate with politics/ would have a SAY in their city-state.  New military system: development of infantry (foot soldiers, Hoplite armies) o Would fight shoulder-to-shoulder (Phalanx), could not break rank o Could have a say in government, which led to more people becoming involved in politics  Greek Civilizations o All around Black Sea o They were spread out o A lot of trading went on which creates a new class: merchants  Merchants want a say in government  Culture o Egyptian influence o Famous female poet, Sappho; poetry dealt with women  She resided in Lesbos o Famous male poet, Hesiod, was a farmer—wrote about what he knew  "Works and Days"--talks about earning your living and respecting the Gods  Didn’t respect/trust nobility  City-states o Corinth- great location; lots of trading  Great example of tyranny  Greek definition of tyrant: noble who comes to power in an unconstitutional way i. Tyrants: promoted public works projects o Supported trade, the merchant class & the colonies o Encouraged writing, the arts & culture o Causeways were constructed to allow ships to be hauled  There were laws against idleness  City-states were known for prostitution  Sparta o Also located on Peloponnesus, District of Laconia o Believed ancestors may have been the Dorians o Prime example of oligarchy: government ruled by a few people o Legendary lawgiver: Lycurgus  Gives laws, organized Sparta into nation of soldiers  Told the people of Sparta not to change his laws until he returned but he never did so they were stuck with his laws o Sparta expands through conquest & subjugation  Annexes neighboring land of Messenia i. Messenians were forced to farm the land, became serfs, known as Helots ii. 10 Helots to 1 Sparta; outnumbered the Spartans o Sent spies among Helots to reduce the threat of rebellion o Spartan men wore long hair to show they were gentlemen  Helot could be beaten or killed & nothing would be done  Political Structures of Sparta o Two kings ruled: one for religion and one for military  Had to be 60 or older to be king o Council of elders: 28 elders formed this council  Had to be 60 or older o Duties were mostly administrative duties or court duties o Had an assembly: all adult male citizens over 30 would vote yes or no to any of the council's proposals  Magistrates o Group of five men o Virtually the government of Sparta o Changed yearly by vote in assembly o 60 years or older o Presided over council of elders in assembly o Distributed property o Could veto (example of how it was not a democracy) o Could get rid of kings if omens were favorable o Controlled the secret police who were usually around 20 yrs. Old  These secret policemen were sent into an area with nothing but a cloak and a knife; couldn’t come home unless they killed a Helot o Could decide the fate of newborns: live or die? if the newborn was sickly, it was left into the open until it died. (Motto: Survival of the Fittest, No Weakness)  Spartan boys at the age of 7 were taken from families o Forced to live outdoors o Trained in athletics & military to bear physical pain & endurance o Forced to run a gauntlet while being whipped o Taught that surrendering in battle was a disgrace o At the age of 20, they were placed in army  Moved into barracks until age of 30 {Thursday, September 22 , 2016}  Women owned land and could participate in business since husbands were in the military  Women would visit husbands at night in order to have kids/get pregnant  Women traded very little Athens  Located in the District of Attica  Difference between Sparta and Athens: o Sparta: agricultural, landlocked, powerful army, culturally isolated, founded on swift conquest, ruled by aristocracy (does not last; tyrants eventually take over) o Athens: right on coast, lots of trading, good commerce/ trading, good navy, encouraged foreign ideas/visitors, develops less violently, eventually develops direct democracy Cylon  Around 600 B.C., he wanted to seize power (becomes a tyrant) o All of his followers are massacred o Family banished from Athens o Unsuccessful o He was a young noble  Around 621 B.C., we see first written laws in Athens o Important to democracy o Written down by Draco  So harsh/severe ( common modern term: "draconic measures) i. Ex: death penalty for stealing cabbage ii. Harshest laws were about debt iii. Cause problems among lower classes o Ruled by aristocracy  Economic crisis results i. Crops are switched to grapes and olives; grain no longer profitable ii. Farmers start losing land / doesn't see a way out...TIME TO REVOLT!  Aristocrats did not want to see class warfare i. Give emergency power to a merchant, known for wisdom, Solon o Period known as "Shaking off of Burdens" o He canceled all existing mortgages o Prohibited/ banned enslavement for debt Solon (cont.) o Does not redistribute land o Just calms things down; does not solve the problem o Divided Athens into 4 classes based on wealth, not birth.  First two (2) classes: wealthiest, allowed to serve on council of elders  Third (3 ) class: allowed to serve on a council of 400,  Fourth (4 ) class: poorest of the classes, could participate in assembly o Retires voluntarily...a lot of people ARE still NOT happy  Poor men could vote, women still could not  "Money flits from man to man, honor, however, abides forever" -Solon o Discontent paves way for a nobleman to seize power Pisistratus  Tyrant; seizes power despite council of nobles' evasive measures o Has a mercenary army (paid soldiers) o Benevolent despot o Gave poor farmers land, confiscated estates(land) o Offered poor farmers loans o Reduces power of aristocracy in Athens  Ex.: if noble families did not support him, they would be exiled...would sometimes keep the sons of noble family hostage to make sure they would not cause problems o Kept elections in the assembly butt only his people were elected o Patronized the arts, promoted literary festivals & literature, brought poets into Athens o Had many public works projects (temples and fountains) o Introduced the silver coin o When he died, his son Hippias took over  Hippius was spiteful, oppressive, hated, complete opposite of father  Athens asked Sparta to help overthrow Hippias  Eventually exiled to Persia  Sparta tries to infiltrate Athenian politics o Resulted in strife, chaos, it's NEVER good to overthrow leader with the enemy  Cleisthenes (508 B.C) o Athenian who comes to power by popular support o Known as "THE FATHER OF ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY"(Think: CD) o Changes the way of electing officials based on where you live  District of Attica divided into 10 regions (gerrymander)  (Gerrymander: to divide a geographic area into voting districts) o Only ruled for about a year but his changes have a lasting effect on Athens


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