History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #6
History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #6 History 1302
Popular in History of the U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Professor Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see History of the U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
History 1302 September 26, 2016 Professor Ramirez Lecture Notes KEY PEOPLE KEY INFORMATION KEY TERMS Recap from Previous Class: Boxing Appealed to the working class and immigrants because the boxers themselves were from this class Saloons, ethnic clubs Boxing remained illegal in many states until after WWI Encouraged gambling (and they would fix the bets against betters) Progressivism(a reform movement during the early1900s) Emerged as a result of changes brought on by industrialization and urbanization Attempt to deal with the changes of industrialization and urbanization o Wanted to solve the problems brought on by these two movements Had to be controlled Had to intervene in society o Believed it was essential to intervene in societyin order to bring about justice and order Rejected Social Darwinism which believesin the success or failure without interference or involvement In a state of decline quickly in the early1900s, and by 1920 it was over Strains of Progressivism Social Cohesion o Having a focus on social justice o Individuals were concerned on the impacts of industrialization and urbanization on the working class, women, children, immigrants o Viewed society as a unity; therefore if one part of society was affected negatively, so would the others Scientific o Used scientific methods to improve society o Stressed efficiency and organization o In business, used new methods of production and organization o Conservation used scientific methods to conserve the forests Anti-Monopoly o Concerned about the concentration of wealthand industry o Wanted the government to either regulate or destroy monopolies o Wanted the federal government to intervene in society to bring order and progress Government intervention Muckrakers Modern equivalent would be investigative journalists Exposed the middle class Americans to social,political,and economic illsof industrial America o How can the US solve these problems if the middle class is not aware of them? Ida Tarbell o Concerned with trusts and monopolies Lincoln Steffens, Shame of the Cities o Attacked corrupt politicians and urban politicalmachines o Encouraged ordinary Americans to become involved in politics Jacob Riis Best known of Muckrakers How the Other Half Lives (1890) o Spoke about tenements and stated that the owners of tenements are motivated by greed o Attacked saloons believing that they were evil institutions, alarmed at the high amount of saloons present in NYC Morgue o An unlicensed saloon kept openand sold alcohol to law enforcement o Believed that they corrupted politics (urban political machines operated out of these saloons often times) o Encouraged the spread of disease,poverty, and crime Men’s lodging o Charged 5 cents to sleep Italian Rag picker o Large numbers of immigrants coming into cities that created profits Social Gospel AKA Christian Socialism o A social justice movement o The individuals believed that Christians had the social responsibilityto help out the needy o Largely a protestant movement, but didinclude some Catholics and Jews o Established charities in slums, missions, churches, gyms, and clubs o Called for social reforms to achieve a just society Enactment of child labor laws Inspection of factories Regulation of Christmas o Establishment of the Salvation Army whichcombined religionwith reform Provided both spiritual and material help o Establishment of YMCA Provided recreational and cultural activities as well as material help Washington Gladden o Supported the socialgospel movement o Wanted Christian law to govern industry o Supported the right of workers to organize Walter Rauschenbusch o Leading figure in the movement o A Baptist minister from NYC o Encouraged Americans to follow inthe footsteps of Jesus; to stand on the side of the poor Charles Sheldon, In His Steps (1898) o The book featured a young minister who left his comfortable post in order to work among the poor Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical “Of modern Things” (1893) o During the late 1800s, the catholic mindset changed towards reform movements, up until this point in time they did not participate inthese movements o Condemned capitalismif it resulted in poverty o Upheld the right of workers to joinlabor unions and socialistmovements as long as they were not anti-religious Settlement House Movement Middle class Americans placedthe blame for poverty on the poor themselves (lazy, lack of motivation, etc.) This settle house movement believedthat poverty emerged as a result of their environment, change the environment and change their status and uplift those individuals College Settlement 1889, establishedin NYC in a tenement o Provided them with classeson the English language, homemaking o Had health clinic and established nurseries for working women o Willing to work with African Americans o Sympathetic towards the labor movement o Considered to be appropriate work for unmarried women (socialwork) Hull House 1889 o One of the best known settlement houses, inChicago o Jane Adams Hull House Children Moral Reform Tried to eliminate evil from society The government imposing morals on the American citizens Examples of Moral reform (believedthat consumption of alcohol and prostitution were evil/socialillsand needed to be eliminated) o Temperance or Prohibition Movement Domestic violence,family breakups, alcoholism Employers favored prohibition/temperance Not showing up, or late Poor performance Liquor industry taking advantage of the people who purchased products and their vulnerability Middle class white women were veryopposed to alcohol 1Opposed by the working class,immigrants, Catholics (believeddrinking was a matter between the individual, the church and God), and urban residents o Prostitution Prior to the 1900s cities generally regulated prostitution Licensing and taxing of brothels Red light districts Tried to limit the spreadof disease by providingmedical examinations to prostitutes After 1900, progressives tried to eliminate prostitution believingthat it was evil Conspiracies that there were crime syndicates that would drug and push women into prostitution o Harsh treatment of prostitutes, they weresent to prison, treated as criminals by social workers Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Women’s Suffrage Granting women the right to vote One of the largest movements in American History Two phases of women’s suffrage o Natural Rights prior to 1900 Made the natural rights argument that men and women wereequal, therefore women should have the right to vote Separate sphere argument: Opposition believedthat it violatedthe different roles that men and women have insociety…not necessarily inferior but separate (men work, provide,and protect the family; women stay at home, raise children, look after husbands) Also, oppositionsuggested that the bible was against equal rights because it might lead to divorce, promiscuity, dissolution of gender roles;also believed women would lose breastmilk, grow beards,and face violence at polls Ephesians cited where women told to submit to men Polling stations often located insaloons and bars,increased assault risk o Safer arguments after 1900 Used the separate sphere argument intheir favor Suffragists made the point that women had special talents needed in politics(more peaceful and literate than men) Race card: if blackmen could vote why couldn’t white women? Immigrant comparison: if immigrants could vote, why couldn’t women? Suffrage in 1920 via the 19 amendment Anti-Suffrage posters o Believed women would vote for reform candidates o Believed if given the right to vote, there would be a switch ingender roles Birth Control Movement Part of the progressive movement Comstock Law (1873) o Prohibited the distribution of pornography, birthcontrol, and o Prohibited physicians from providinginformation on birth control o Believed birth control was lude and unlawful Margaret Sanger o Leader in the birth control movement o Influenced by Emma Goldman (a radicalbirth control advocate) o Suffered a nervous breakdown, left her husband and children, because of this she was ridiculed by the media o Arrested in 1960 for opening up a birth control clinic inNY o Believed that it was a woman’s right to decide whether or not to get pregnant Political Reforms Municipal Reforms (city level) o Creation of the Nonpartisan Commission Individuals elected to city council on a non-partisan basis o City Manager Professionally trained personto run the city It was expected that they would run the city on a non-partisan basis o At large elections of city representatives Individuals were elected to the city council on an at-large (city) basis, done to reduce the power of wardbosses Statewide Reforms (state level) o Initiative Allows voters to vote on legislationdirectly o Referendum Allows voters to approve or reject legislationthat was approved/passedby the legislature o Direct primary Allows voters to elect their party’s candidate o Recall Allows voters to recall electedofficials o Governor Robert Lafollette Governor of Wisconsin Leading reformer Passed laws regulating industry and utilities,enacting workman’s comp, and increased taxes on corporations Blacks and Progressivism Largely a white movement for white people,but there was impact on African Americans Disfranchisement and segregation as progressive reforms o Stripping the right to vote away from African Americans, believedit would purify the electorate and whites wouldn’t have to deal withAfrican American interference o Believed that Segregation was a progressive form o Alternatives to segregated schools: No school Not reallyan option, so that supports segregation as a progressive reform Thomas Dixon’s The Clansman (1905) o He believed that if African Americans were granted politicalequality, it would lead to socialequality and race mixture which would ultimately destroy civilization Edgar Gardner Murphy o A minister who favored increased educational opportunities for African Americans o Called for protecting African Americans against lynchings WEB Du Bois o A reformer who wrote a book calledthe Souls of Black folk, 1903 o Encouraged African Americans to obtain a higher education, as wellas to fight against discrimination and segregation o One of the founders of the NAACP (a blackcivil rights organization founded in 1909) An elitist org, members came from the middle class,individuals often referred to as the “Talented Tenth” and fought for the rights of all African Americans individuals Filed lawsuits to challenge discrimination Guinn v. UnitedStates (1915) The court ruled that the grandfather clause was unconstitutional, no longer allowedto be used to disfranchise African Americans African Americans werenot allowedto vote during the Civil War period therefor it was unlawful Buchannan v. Worley (1917) Struck down a law requiring residential segregation Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Established 1905 by Socialists Favored the overthrow of capitalism o Believed that the workers should own industry, then industry would be run ina democratic fashion o Tactic for overthrowing capitalism Workers established inlarge unions, organize strikes, overthrow capitalism Most egalitarian of labor unions o Organized members regardless of skill o Included women, immigrants, as wellas the Japanese and Chinese o Attracted members withsongs and comic books o Many faced harassment by law enforcement SocialistParty Established 1901 o Several socialistgroups merged to form this party o Attracted support from many labor organizations Eugene Debs o Leading figure o Believed in collectiveownership of business o Ran for president on severaloccasion o Criticized involvement inthe first WW, was thrown in prison, and still received over a million votes for running for president while inprison Substantial Support o 1912: 900,00 for Debs ina presidential election United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) Created by highly skilled coalminers An egalitarian labor union (organized workers regardless of race or nationality) o African Americans o Southern and Eastern Europeans Organized regardless of race or nationality
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