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Week 3 Nutrition and Health Notes

by: Jacqueline Tkachuk

Week 3 Nutrition and Health Notes 11:709:255

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Nutritional Science > 11:709:255 > Week 3 Nutrition and Health Notes
Jacqueline Tkachuk

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About this Document

These notes cover the basics of carbohydrates, starch digestion, and the different types of Diabetes
Nutrition & Health
Dr. Miller
Class Notes
Diabetes, nutrition, diet, starch, Carbohydrates, health
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 11:709:255 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Nutrition & Health in Nutritional Science at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Class #5: September 20, 2016 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: 1 sugar unit -Glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: 2 sugar units Complex Carbohydrates 1. Oligosaccharides: (3-10 sugar units) a. Raffinose, stachyose 2. Polysaccharides: (>10 units) a. Glycogen, Starch, Dietary Fiber Sucrose vs. High Fructose Corn Syrup (Glucose + Fructose) -essentially the same -HFCS has a little more in fructose than in glucose giving it an even sweeter taste -humans don’t digest in oligosaccharides and it is not used for energy or nutrition Oligosaccharides in Mammary Glands -helps baby to be healthy (good bacteria) Polysaccharides -Starch, Glycogen, Dietary Fiber Starches: Amylose and Amylopectin 1. Amylose: has 1,4 alpha glycosidic bonds 2. Amylopectin: has 1,4 alpha and 1,6 beta glycosidic bonds Glycogen: Glucose storage in liver and muscle Starch Digestion: -salivary glands release alpha amylase which cuts amylose and amylopectin forming dextrins -Starch is digestible because of alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds Fiber: -if you can slow down gastric emptying it will slow down the digestion and keeps food in stomach promoting satiety September 23, 2016 Week 3 Lecture 6 Gestational Diabetes: not due to a lack of insulin production but rather due to insulin resistance Secondary diabetes: brought on by medical conditions or diseases Type 2 Diabetes: starting to occur in younger people -insulin resistance -common to middle-age men and women -can be managed by diet, exercise, or glucose lowering medications -insulin receptors have difficulty binding to insulin resulting in fewer glucose transporter molecules that signal glucose uptake => this can lead to hyperglycemia Type 1 Diabetes: pretty rare -lack of insulin production -requires insulin pumped daily via injections -beta cells of the pancreas have been destroyed causing a lack of signaling of glucose transporters to move into the plasma membrane to bring in more glucose into the cell Type 3 Diabetes: -is Alzheimer’s disease part of what causes type 3 diabetes


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