Chapter 11 Notes
Chapter 11 Notes Psyc 326
Popular in Behavioral Neuroscience
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Seraphim on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 326 at University of Southern California taught by Dr. Lavond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 11 - Species-typical behavioral behaviors: - Aggressive Behavior: A rat will try to flee in order to confront prey animals, whereas a cat expresses aggressive behavior via predatory behavior (approaches danger rather than flee away). - Stimulate PAG: You get defensive behaviors or aggressive behaviors. - Somatic NS is well organized. - Nonspecific: All animals show the same nonspecific physiological responses such as arousal. Figure 11.1 - Amygdala: Involved in fear and aggressive behaviors. - Lateral Nucleus: Input/sensory part of amygdala, receives input from Cerebral cortex (vmPFC)- CS (much weaker condition), thalamus- US (strong connection), hippocampal formation; Afferent projection. Sends projections to the basal nucleus and vmPFC. - Central Nucleus: Major amygdala output for processing, motor function, projects to ventral striatum (motor functions/reward)- efferent. Activation of CE elicits behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal responses. - Basal Nucleus: Not too important. - Amygdala important for emotions that we are born with such as a smell from a predator activates the lateral nucleus- innate reaction, and handles learned emotional reactions such as the sound of a door opening (classical conditioning) also seen in lateral nucleus. - Classical conditioning to occur you need inputs that represent sensory, and unique outputs which shows that you have learned something- has connections to central nucleus. - Central Nucleus activates autonomic system, arousal, potentiated startle, freezing, facial muscles, ACTH-stress, ACh arousal, NE vigilance, ACh arousal. Central activates autonomic (sympathetic, parasympathetic), arousal pathways, VTA (reward system)- most important part of the brain for the expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli. - If damage central nucleus or LA you abolish or get a more restricted range of emotional behaviors and physiological responses, no longer show signs of fear, and are more tame and blood levels of stress hormones are lower. - Is this if you damage the LA or central nucleus??? - Stimulate CN you see signs of fear and agitation. - LA: Important for classical conditioning- involved in the effects of reinforcing stimuli on learning. - Damage to LA or CN results in a reduction of emotional behaviors and physiological responses. Figure 11.3 - Learned fear is a phobia- unreasonable fear. - CER- Conditioned Emotional Response: Bell + meat powder will eventually cause just a bell to stimulate salivation→ Autonomic classical conditioning. - CER: A classically conditioned response that occurs when a neutral stimulus is followed by an aversive stimulus; includes autonomic, behavioral, heart rate, freezing, hormone release. - Present tone first, and end of tone present meat powder (US): Called a timing diagram. At beginning of tone, tone stays on for 10 seconds, then present a short 0.5 second shock after tone- repeat for a while and end up with learned behavioral response by freezing. - If lesion amygdala on an animal and you try to do a CER the animal will never learn to fear. - If take an animal who has learned response fear of freezing, and then damages the amygdala, the animal will no longer show the behavioral response. - The lateral amygdala does not forget this condition but can’t express it. - If stimulate the amygdala during learning, it takes fewer trials for the animal to learn the learning behavioral response. - These lesions have to be bilateral- on both sides. - Potentiated Startle: If you are already aroused to an event, then present a light tone that is not startling, you will show an unusual large response- lasts for a long time. But if damage amygdala you don’t get this potentiated startle- you never get startled. - If damaged, you don’t get scared from anything such as a horror movie. They can say that it is a scary movie or noise but not actually be scared. - CER: Tone (CS) + Shock (US)→ Freezing (CR). - Physical changes due to a CER takes place in the lateral nucleus. - LA→ CN→ hypothalamus, midbrain, pons→ hormonal, behavioral, autonomic. - Cajal set up series of slides that tells a story and showed this to groups of people, and depending of the story that was read they had different reactions. At the very center it showed ambulance and dead people. - Tell one group these people are just pretending to be dead and hurt. - Another group tell these people are actually injured and these people actually died. - At the end of slides ask people what was the story you were told. And if told the neutral story that were pretending the people gave more details about the beginning and ending of slides and forgot about the ambulance incidence. People that were given the more emotional story remembered a lot more details about the center of story with dead people→ amygdala important for learning emotional responses. - A lot more activation of amygdala in more emotional story. - If damaged hippocampal they don’t remember the center scene at all. - Classical conditioning study- showed computer screen with pictures of colored slides. People are wearing ear phones and when blue slide showed up a loud sound was presented- repeated over and over→ people developed a fear response EDR/skin conductance- skin got more spiky/goosebumps→ learned fear response to the blue slide in autonomic NS. Now people with amygdalar damage react differently to this- if ask them what is going on they know that a blue side presents a loud noise, but they are not bothered at all, show no skin conductance. If h ippocampal damage, give them same setting, they develop learned fear response and skin conductance response (are scared), but ask them what is going on they are clueless→ intellectual learning. - Have people watch someone being trained for fear learned behavior and these people that are watching have their amygdala activated to the same level as the person- observational learning. You are learning a feared response by observing other people- fMRI supported. - You can describe an experiment, we are going to shock you and give you a warning too. Right after warning, their amygdala becomes very excited due to the anticipation- they can learn a conditioned fear. - Extinction: Unlearn a response. Tone shock tone shock- present just tone by itself without pairing of shock, just tone tone tone, as a consequence the learned fear response (freezing or skin conductance) begins to diminish and their amygdala also responds that much less to the tone as well. - Extinction is due to the vmPFC. Lesions to this area impair extinction, and stimulation inhibits conditioned emotional responses. - In extinction when the CS is presented several times with no CR, the animal learns that the CS is not dangerous so it extinguishes the freezing response. FIgure 11.4 - In an extinction protocol you see less activity in amygdala and more activity in vmPFC. vmPFC is suppressing the amygdala response. Amygdala is not forgetting this feared response because if you were to repair the tone and shock they would very rapidly relearn the fear response. - Extinction occurs because the vmPFC is suppressing the amygdala. Figure 11.5 - PAG: Regulating pain perception and regulating aggressive behavior. - If stimulate dorsal PAG you see defensive behavior- cat will have hair sticking up, hissing, not touch prey. - If stimulate ventral PAG you see predatory aggression- cat crouches down low, ears go back, pounce on a prey if visible. - Only know dorsal and ventral PAG forget about all other connections. - Ventral PAG- predatory behavior is also activated when hungry by the lateral hypothalamus. - Serotonin projects to vmPFC which suppresses human aggressive behavior, but if you disrupt serotonin projections to vmPFC you become more aggressive. - More serotonin= Less aggressive. - Serotonin in vmPFC Figure 11.6 - Sample from cerebral spinal cord fluid which has the metabolites (5-HIAA) of serotonin which means you have a lot more serotonin in brain. - Young animals with low levels of metabolites died before adulthood, in comparison to animals who had high levels of serotonin lived because they suppressed aggressive behaviors. - Prozac: Humans given this who have low levels of serotonin helps them to be less aggressive and you see more activity in vmPC and less in amygdala. Figure 11.7 - vmPFC: Inhibits amygdala; it receives inputs about what is happening in the environment and what plans are being made, and its outputs permit it to affect a variety of physiological behaviors- in controls our emotional responses. Figure 11.8 - After Phineas Gage damaged his vmPFC he became much more aggressive, showed up late to work and started drinking. Figure 11.1 - People with vmPFC damage choose the utilitarian moral judgement- killing one man over 5 people because thinking about pushing a man off a bridge does not evoke an unpleasant emotional reaction. - vmPFC makes the same decisions as the nonmoral, impersonal scenarios. - People grown up with prefrontal cortex damage have worse social and reasoning problems- they never develop good moral reasoning. - Adults who get damage later will at least know what the right moral answer is, but they will not act it out. Figure 11.9 - vlPFC projects to either anterior cingulate cortex or to lateral amygdala. - BLACKBOARD - ACC→ dlPFC - dlPFC: Involved in working memory, response selection, retrieving information from LTM, evaluation/implementing strategies, decision making. Figure 11.10 - Cold-blooded predetermined: vlPFC was not working- their decision making was not working. - Prefrontal cortex was 22% smaller for the cold-blooded murder. - Successful psychopaths who never got caught had a normal PFC. - Low serotonin release in PFC prevents the PFC from inhibiting the amygdala- engage in inappropriate behavior. - High levels of serotonin decreases aggressive behavior. - Enhance reuptake of 5-HT by adding promoters such as Prozac- this increases activity in PFC and reduces aggression. - If testosterone is given during organizational effect and no testosterone during activational effect then low aggressiveness. - If placebo after birth then testosterone as adult→ Low aggressiveness. - Need testosterone at birth and adult to develop aggressiveness. - Decreased PFC activity and increased amygdala activity in the brains of convicted impulsive murderers. - People with antisocial personality disorder showed an 11% reduction in volume of PFC. - Decreased PFC is associated with antisocial behavior. - Amygdala= Provoking anger and violent emotional reactions. - PFC= Suppressing aggressive behavior by recognizing its negative consequences. - Murderers who got caught had low vlPFC activity. Figure 11.11 - Implies testosterone has both organizational and activational effects in females. Figure 11.12 - Male is secreting testosterone which is having an effect on the females on its immediate neighbor- most litters are mixed sexes (females/males). - On one side you have 1 female with 2 males- double hits of testosterone. - 0M female least organizational effects of testosterone because very far away from males. - 2M females show most aggressive behaviors because closest to males in litter so their blood levels of testosterone are much higher. Figure 11.13 - Chemical castration- giving drugs that inhibit synthesis still show aggressiveness. - Alcohol interacts with dominance and season. - Testosterone influences social dominance. - By adding alcohol to dominant animals during mating season makes them become very aggressive. - Subordinate during mating season are the least aggressive, and slightly aggressive during non-mating season, and alcohol does not change their aggressiveness behavior a lot either. Figure 11.14 - Emotions are universal to express and interpret them. Figure 11.15 - Native speakers are accurate at detecting emotions that are being expressed. - If you listen to a language that you don’t understand you will still be able to recognize and interpret the emotion they are expressing. Figure 11.16 - Right Hemisphere: Damage to this area prevented people from from producing or describing mental images of facial expressions of emotions. - Comprehension of emotion from word meaning increased the activity of the left PFC. - Comprehension of emotion from tone of voice increased the activity of the right PFC. - Broca’s Area: Express/producing an emotion. - Wernicke’s Area: Interpret/comprehension language. - Affective Blindsight: Damage to the visual cortex results in the ability of a person who cannot see objects in their blind field to accurately identify facial expressions of emotion while remaining unconscious of perceiving them. - Damage to amygdala impairs people’s ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion but does not affect people’s ability to recognize emotions in tone of voice. Figure 11.17 - Asked to imitate emotions- subjects looking at photographs with different emotions, and as these subjects looked at pictures their emotions changed accordingly. - No difference whether presented to R or L hemisphere. Magnocellular layer is interpreting this information for us. - Blindsight- Even though they cannot consciously see the photographs of the pictures and their emotions, they still make the same facial expression due to the magnocellular layer. Figure 11.18 - Magnocellular: Unconscious, amygdala - LSF: Easily tell expression in emotions. - Blindsight: Damage to visual cortex. Recognize what their emotions are. - The amygdala was able to recognize an expression of fear based on low spatial frequency (magno). - When people looked at photographs of faces showing expressions of fear, they found that the largest and first response was shown in the amygdala and then in the visual cortex which proves that the amygdala receives input from the magnocellular layer that permits people to recognize facial expressions of fear. Figure 11.19 - People spend most of the time looking at eyes in a photograph. - SM has bilateral amygdalar damage and spends a lot of time looking at the mouth, or whatever is moving. If ask what emotions they are expressing, she will fail. If tell her to look at eyes, she then can identify the emotion the person is expressing. Figure 11.20 - Google Study- groups are most effective when: Talking turns, high social sensitivity. Figure 11.21 - Mirror Neurons: Superior temporal sulcus. - Gaze up- most reactive. FIgure 11.22 - R hemisphere good for recognizing facial expressions of emotions and making emotional expressions. - Negative emotions: Amygdala - Positive emotions: Reward system - Lesion to 6 abducens (moving eyes horizontally), 7 abducens (facial nerves). If damage both nerves can’t express emotions and don’t experience emotions either. - Moebius Syndrome: Impairs facial expression of emotions due to nerve damage and impairs their ability to recognize emotional facial expressions because they can’t imitate. Results in facial paralysis and inability to make lateral eye movements. Damage to the 6 abducens and 7 cranial nerves. Figure 11.23 - When you look at a disgusting photograph your insular cortex becomes active. - Damage to insular cortex impairs people’s ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust. Figure 11.24 - Stimulating muscles of face only to make a smile, and his smile is not very believable. You need a complex of nerves to create a full smile. Figure 11.25 - Volitional Facial Paresis: R hemisphere damage to face region of primary motor cortex or corticobulbar fibers to 7th cranial nerve. Tell her a joke and she smiles involuntarily, she is activating both sides of face, but when asked to smile voluntarily she can’t- left side of face not paralyzed. - Emotional Facial Paresis: L hemisphere damage of anterior insula. Asked to voluntarily smile and has no problem, but tell him a joke and he can’t smile involuntarily. - This is an example of a double dissociation. Figure 11.26 - Appropriate jokes- Increasing funniness activates the right vmPFC and NAC (reward system). - Racist inappropriate jokes- increasing social norm violation (joke is threatening) you get left OPC and right amygdala activation (you shouldn’t be laughing so hard). Figure 11.27 - Left side of the face expresses stronger facial emotions. Left side is being controlled by the right hemisphere which is important for recognizing emotions in the voice or facial expressions of other people (especially negative ones). Figure 11.29 - Cannon-Bard: Conscious feelings are direct- our feelings determine our reactions. - James-Lange: Conscious feelings are indirect- our feelings are a result of our observation of our own reactions. First you will start trembling, and heart rate increases and then you will feel scared. Appropriate jokes and tone of voice= Right PFC (right vmPFC). Meaning of word= Left PFC (left vmPFC).
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