PSCI2012 Chapter 3 Democracy
PSCI2012 Chapter 3 Democracy PSCI 2012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindzy Konrad on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 2012 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Jupille in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Math at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
PSCI2012 Chapter 3 Democracy Hobes’s solution => Madison’s Dilemma problem: who will control govt. *solution: democracy I. Democracy (think accountability) Def: political system in which the rulers are accountable to be ruled 3 principles: o Accountability o Participation o Contestation I.A. Accountability (alternation: power alternates) Give citizens regular opportunity to get rid of people they don’t like I.B. Participation Citizens need to elect and eject leaders Institutionalized: clear and consistent rules define membership in electorate Universal suffrage Unforced participation I.C. Contestation Real alternatives contesting for power II. Political and Legal Requirements i.e. how political institutions support contestation and participation 1. elected government 2. civil liberties o Freedom of expression o Freedom of assembly o Freedom of press 3. Fair and Frequent elections What trade off stands @ center of Madison’s Dilemma? Argument between limited and effective govt. => can think of as representative vs. effective govt. III. Madison’s Dilemma: Balancing limited and effective got. PSCI2012 4 principles of constitutional design A. Unitarism vs. Federalism (territorial distribution of power) B. Separation or fusion of powers (executive legislative relations) C. Judicial review vs. parliamentary supremacy D. Majoritarian or proportional electoral system (electoral processes) III.A. Unitary vs. Federalism U.S. (unitarism) Federal State (federalism) o Concentrates power o Disperses power o Constitution grants central o Constitution grants 2 or govt. exclusive and final more govts. Overlapping authority over policy making political authority over same across national territory group of people o France, UK, Israel o Big countries tend to be federalist III.B. Executive – Legislative Relations Most essential distinction between “types” of democracy involves how they distribute power across legislative and executive branches and how these relate to each other Presidentialism: o Separation of origin: voters directly elect members of legislature and cast separate ballot directly electing president o Separation of survival: members of both branches serve fixed terms; survive until end of term Parliamentarism: o No separation of origin: executive originates in legislature; PM elected by legislators o No separation of survival: no fixed terms; PM can be dismissed by legislators through vote of no confidence *Addressing Madison’s Dilemma Power under Presidentialism o Checks and balances in place o Divided govt. Occurs when president comes from 1 party, but dif. Party controls legislative branch Power under Parliamentarism o No checks and balances III.C. Judicial Review vs. Parliamentary Supremacy Judicial review: ability of country’s high court to invalidate laws Parliamentary supremacy: judge’s decisions remain subordinate III.D. Electoral systems Electoral process: translate citizens vote into legislative seats Plurality rule: win 50% plus 1, largest amount of votes Majority rule: candidate needs actual majority of 50% to win
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