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Chapter 10 Notes

by: Lili Notetaker
Lili Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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About this Document

Research Methods
Deepa Oommen
Class Notes
Ethnography, Approachestoethnography, Ethnographicclaims, Ethnographicdata, Ethnographicdataanalysis, Ethnographicwarrants
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Popular in (CMST) Communication Studies

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lili Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 306 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Deepa Oommen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in (CMST) Communication Studies at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

Similar to 306 at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Popular in (CMST) Communication Studies


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Date Created: 09/26/16
CHAPTER 10: ETHNOGRAPHY  Ethnography originated from cultural anthropology.  Ethnography: The study of, writing about, & or a description of people or folk. It’s attempting to describe a culture from the viewpoint of a cultural insider.  Cultural Knowledge: Includes explicit & implicit cultural knowledge we have about life. Things we know and can talk about easily.  Thick Description: Detailed explanation of a social setting & of the lives of the people. Integral to ethnography. APPROACHES TO ETHNOGRAPHY : Three Approaches: Ethnography of speaking, ethnography of communications, autoethnography.  Ethnography of Speaking (EOS): A method for studying culturally specific communication practices and patterns. Analysis of factors relevant to understanding how a communication event accomplishes its goals. Two key factors:  Speaking differs cross culturally.  Speaking represents social life  tells us something about distinct about the group.  Speech differs cross-culturally & speaking tells something about our culture.  Acronym SPEAKING explains how to conduct an EOS analysis within a speech community.  Speech Community- Group of individuals who share a common set of norms or rules for interpreting & using speech. (speaking framework- key questions used for EOS analysis ex. S=setting & scene, P=participants, E=ends, A=act sequence, K=Key, I=instrumentalities, N=norms, G=genre)  Ethnography of Communication (EOC): Focus on the speech acts/event of speech communities also but are more interested in learning & comparing the shared & varied codes of communication among & between groups. Interested in how shared meaning & coordinated action vary across social groups. Combine linguistic and anthropological approaches to research.  Both EOS and EOC studies need to provide a clear understanding of your topic.  Both EOS and EOC need specific examples to back up claims. (Interviews, observations, media, documents, etc.)  EOS and EOC typically written in first person, also can be in third person.  Autoethnography: When a researcher describes/analyzes personal experiences to better understand a cultural event. A combo of ethnography & autobiography.  Almost always written in first person and may come in different forms than EOS or EOC approaches.(journals, short stories, poems, personal essays) ETHNOGRAPHIC CLAIMS : Four kinds of ethnographic claims: Descriptive, interpretive, evaluative, & reformist claims.  Descriptive Claims: Tend to be the most typical from an EOS or EOC approach. Description of speech events, parts of speech events, & functions of speech events.  Naming and parts of speech events include senders, receivers, channels.  Interpretive Claims: Enhances our understanding of how communication creates culture & how culture creates communication.  Evaluative and Reformist Claims: Often considered critical ethnographies.  Evaluative Claims= Are used when you judge the worthof or value of a communication message you are analyzing or studying. Oftenused to advocate for a change in some behavior or practice in culture.  Reformist Claims= Take evaluation a step further. Describe negative consequences of current economic, political, or social system. ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA : Key question: What will your data be? Two types: Participant observation and conduct interviews.  Participant Observation: Backbone of ethnographic research. Entails learning about & watching a cultural setting by participating in the cultural settings. Participation can be extensive (part of culture) or minimal (only observing).  Interviews: Integral part of ethnographic research. Asking questions and getting answers from participants in a study. Involves conversation and storytelling. Have various forms: Oral history, personal narrative, topical interview.  Oral History= when participants retell historical moments in their lives  Personal Narrative=A participant’s personal opinion or perspective on an event or experience.  Topical Interview= Where the participant gives their opinion or perspective on a particular subject or topic.  6 Steps to Getting Access to a Community: Before interacting with community, you must gain access to community. (One of the hardest steps in ethnography). 6 Steps: 1.) Gate Keepers= Researchers not part of a community group often rely on gatekeeper’s or insiders in a community who are willing to facilitate the researcher’s entry into the community. 2.) Rapport= Must strive to establish rapport with participants. Participants need to trust you. Listen, don’t cut off, show empathy, reciprocate in conversation & show commonalities. 3.) Open to Change= Might find things that don’t always go as planned. Unexpected findings & surprises can teach us a lot about a culture. 4.) Detailed Notes= Take some detailed notes in field. Log what you see, hear, smell, taste in a journal. Take notes about key actors, conversations, etc. 5.) Depart Community/Setting= Reach a data saturation point: point where you feel you are not learning anything new. Ask yourself if you want to stay in contact with participants. Decide if you want to share results with participants. 6.) Reflexivity= Ability to reflect on your own experience to understand how they are both product & producer of a given cultural experience. ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA ANALYSIS : Grounded theory- often used to analyze ethnographic data. Looks for themes in interview transcripts & can be used to induce categories from observation field notes.  Symbolic Interactionism: Shared meaning are created through interactions & these meanings become reality. Three premises to symbolic interactionism:  Humans act towards things on the basis of pre-determined meanings.  Meanings come from social interactions.  Meanings are modified as individuals encounter new experiences and individuals. ETHNOGRAPHIC WARRANTS : Warrants follow similar path to evaluating whether data support your claims. Key issues: Researcher credibility, adequacy, coherence, thick description.  3 Components to Determine Researcher Credibility:  Level of training or experience - How trained is the researcher at conducting interviews/observations?  Degree of membership in social context- Have to determine how involved you’ll be the community if you are conducting EOS or EOC research.  Faithfulness – Have to have detailed notes and transcriptions.  Adequacy and Coherence:  Have you collected/covered enough of available data to make an adequate argument?  Have you kept a detailed enough journal to make up your autoethnography?


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