Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Hewson on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 170 at Central Michigan University taught by McLean, Athena in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Ant. 170 Lecture 1 (Wk 8b) Dr. McLean UNIT III: The Global System, Development and World Poverty Capitalism and the Global Economy We are starting a new unit today (our last for the semester). It will draw from Bodely, Ch 11 and 14 on BB and Robbins, Chs 2 & 3 Intro: In the next couple weeks we will be looking at a cultural with which we are all familiar, but often take for granted the culture of capitalism. The development of capitalism was interconnected with other major historical and cultural trends. As a global system it would have been impossible without globalization, which connected territories around the world. With wealth opportunities that were discovered with global travels, richer nations expanded their own territories through colonization, and as we have discussed previously, this was promoted by ideas of Western superiority and technical progress, and justified by racist and other ideologies that suggested that some cultural and racial groups of people are less advanced and worthy than other groups. Cultures of Scale and the Global Scale Culture of Capitalism:Like any culture, it is associated with particular features, that tend to cluster with scale (or size). Bodely differeates three different types of "Cultures of Scale." Each type differs from the others in terms of 4 features: (1) density, (2) adaptive strategies, (3) social and political organization, and (4) type of economic system. I will begin by describing each of the three types of cultures of scale in terms of these features. (The third type is relevant to capitalism.) Next I will talk very briefly about the development of capitalism with colonial expansion, and the early development of industrial capitalism in Europe. Finally well look at some theories of progress. I. Cultures of Scale (see tr) A. Small (or Domestic) Scale cultures 1. Low density a. Bands: 2550 people (e.g., aborigines) b. egalitarian “dialect tribes": 5001000 people 2. Adaptive strategies: foraging (hunting/gathering), pastoralism, horticulture (as very simple gardening, cultivation of desriable indigenous species and weeding undesriable ones) 3. Social/political organization/ “social power” a. kinbased b. egalitarian, no political head (acephalous), possible bigman an informal leader who lacks authority. c. decisionmaking power occurs at the level of the household/ community (so people have great power over their own lives) 1 4. Eonomy: subsistence a. Everyone in the household has adequate food, shelter, clothing (subsistence resources) as an "inalienable right" (can't be taken away) b. the household controlled its own production and consumption c. exchange was reciprocal (an apple for an orange) d. production was done for usevalue . Large (Political) scale cultures 1. Higher density: many thousands or more 2. Adaptive strategy: a. Early, slash and burn or swidden agriculture (supported 1015 people/sq. mi) b. intensive agriculture (supported 300 people/sq. mi) e.g., Inca state, which used terraces, irrigation system 3. Social/Political Organization/ “social power”: preindustrial states; hierarchical and complex a. increased technology demanded specialized laborers (to build irrigation systems, terraces, storage facilities for food surpluses); sedentary society b. ranked or stratified inequalit (triangles) Clear social differentiation with unequal access to material goods and social power Examples (from less to more dense): i.chiefdoms (with rankings) such as in New Guinea swidden agricultural chiefdoms and tribes i. states (empires and kingdoms) such as the early Egyptian state or Inca state in Peru or feudal kingdoms ( Bodely says "classes" exist, but many scholars reserve this term for capitalist systems, simply calling these ranked or stratified societies.) c. Centralized power occurs by distinct leaders leaders make decisions about production and consumption this takes away power from households (so ordinary people have less power over their lives than in small scale societies) 4. Economic system: tributary a. Those on bottom of scale paid tribute or tax (in form of food or other product) to those in upper strata (the elites) tax collectors, nobles, clergy, leaders (chief; king; emperor) 2 b. Economic exchange was thus redistributive (as wealth was differently redistributed within the society in terms of one's status) still, those on the lowest strata had access to basic subsistence goods c. Production was still done for usevalue (as no profit was made in the exchange) d. very unstable kingdoms, etc. often rose and fell 5. Two questions: (Question 1): How did the shift from a foraging adaptation to intensive agriculture (by way of horticulture and swidden cultivation ) occur? a. horticulture: a shift from small scale nomadic to sedentary societies first, a shift from foraging to slash & burn (or swidden agriculture) semipermanent settlements of 2002000 people also arose b. from swidden to irrigation used by intensive agriculture burned land needed to remain fallow many years; depleted soil as population grew, swidden could no longer support it 100 families needed 3000 acres of swidden agriculture land was unusable as it must lay fallow for many years 100 families needed only 90200 acres of irrigated fields (See Robbins, p. 31; See also Overhead 1.) (Question 2): How did politicization a shift from an egalitarian social and political system to one that was hierarchical occur? Two hypotheses about why politicization and shift to agriculture and to large scale society) occurred (See Robbins pp.2936, esp. 3032 and 35 6) (1) Progress – the Cultural evolution view – people preferred technologically advanced approaches to securing food 1. Henry Lewis Morgan 1877 (early cultural evolutionist) 2. Leslie White 1950s (a neocultural evolutionist) (2) Population pressure 1. Mark Cohen 3 shifts from hunting & gathering occurred when people started to bump into each other as they looked to forage food forced them to have to travel further and further away for food they did not prefer to change to agriculture (they know to farm before but preferred to forage) As they moved more and more into each other's territory, they felt pressured to shift to more technologically complex agriculture C. Global (commercial) scale cultures 1. Highest density: millions/ billions as encompasses the world 2. Adaptive strategy: capitalist global industrial production for profit 3. Social/Political Organizational/ “Social Power”: a. class society with greatest degree of social and economic inequality among people both within and between nations b. Most people have been alienated from their land and the labor process, so have the least amount of control over their lives b. centralized control by national leaders have given way to global level institutions related to economic growth (like the World Bank, IMF, WTO, even multinational corporations) 4. Economic system: capitalist exchange on global market a. So production is done for purposes of producing profit globally centralized political control by nations becomes less critical than global level institutions concerned with promoting economic growth b. Producers must also become consumers as well (as they have no other means of satisfying subsistence needs) c. people lack control over production Pressure is placed on people to become wage laborers rather than to pursue noncommercial subsistence activities (e.g., by policies that separate them from their land and their means of subsistenc e [or production]). d. All subsistence goods and services have been converted to commodities to sell in the market for profit (thus products are produced for their exchange value). D. Problems with global scale culture 1. billions of people can no longer gain access to basic subsistence goods 2. Millions cannot even find labor for living wage 3. People who can neither produce nor consume are dispensable in a capitalist economy 4 4. Unprecedented Poverty & suffering globally inequality 5. malnutrition and infant mortality soar E. History of Cultures of Scale 1. Smallscale cultures (such as the hunter gatherer societies of the Australian aborigines) go back 50,000 years or more 2. Largescale cultures (preindustrial states and kingdoms) 6000 years ago 3. industrial capitalism and global scale culture 200 years ago, but the groundwork was laid w. colonial expansions by the late 1400s. Thus globalization, colonialism and capitalism are all linked and we are still feeling the continuing effects of these developments. So, in this unit will review some of the developments in globalization and colonialism that were linked to the economic developments toward capitalism. Let's review some of those developments. Let’s look at the way colonialism worked in relation to capitalism and globalization. (ppt. for wk 8b) ____________________________________ From Robbins: pp. 2840; 5154. III. The darker side of Colonialism and “evolutionary progress” 1. overpopulation 2. pollution 3. ecocide 4. Genocide: The Ona (Robbins pp. 512) Island of Tierra del Fuego, off southern tip of SA 1870s80s ist Europeans death by disease systematic murder and bounty hunting those who survived starved as European hunters depleted game Argentinians took them to mission stations (much like the Austral. Aborigines) 1974 extinct Today in BRAZil: similar bounty hunting of natives by Europeans 5. Ethnocide: The Crow and Chief Plenty Coup .a. 18501880, Crow and other Plains Indians forced onto reservations. 5 b. in 1930, Chief Plenty Coup, of the Crows (Robbins pp. 523), c. Counting coup: the ultimate sign of courage Planting one's coup stick in the ground and defending it against the enemy, and with it right to the buffalo on which they depended. It marked the boundary which no nonCrow enemy should pass d. Chief Plenty Coup in 1930 dictated his life story, and said about the period after the buffalo had all gone and the Crow were restricted to living on reservations, "After this, nothing happened." Ponder the meaning of this quote. 6
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