Anthropology 170 week 9 notes
Anthropology 170 week 9 notes ANT 170
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Date Created: 09/27/16
UNIT III, Lecture 2 (wk 9a) In class: Discussion of Chief Plenty Coup's comment: "After this, nothing happened." Thus, negative consequences of progress through colonialism, globalization and capitalist expansion for indigenous peoples involved 1. Ecocide destruction of environment with heavy exploitation of resources depletion of resources and tillable land 2. Ethnocide destruction of culture e.g., of the Dreaming of aborigines; Chief Plenty Coups commenting on when the buffalo were gone: “Then there was nothing.” – loss of a culture organized around the buffalo 3. Genocide killing of people through disease of contact, deliberate murder, and ecocide, which left them with nothing to eat. (e.g., the Ona of Tierra del Fuego; Chief Plenty Coups, Crow Indians) How did the world get to this state? The example of taking over other people's land and expelling them from their means of survival occurred earlier in Europe during the ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT and the "Tragedy of the Commons." (See Robbins, p. 39 and Bodely p. 3567 on BB.) II. ENGLISH ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT: Conditions favoring Early Industrial Capitalism A. Europe's enclosure movement of the open fields system 1400s and 1700s "the tragedy of the Commons" 1. a government edict was issued to feudal lords to enclose common pastures previously used by peasantry for grazing their sheep or cutting firewood a. growing urban populations needed food, wool for clothes, and fuel b. In 1400s merchants saw wealth opportunities for supplying growing urban groups. They were buying yarn, fabric, or other objects from people intensely producing in their homes: the "putting out" system i. merchants supplied weavers with materials and tools and paid them for their cloth by the piece c. Merchants were making profits and wanted to supply more of these producers d. By 1700s even greater urban growth led to merchants to shift from the "putting out system" to an emergent small factory system where spinners, weavers, and others were brought together to produce cloth in the same facility. 1 2. Enclosure involved an organized shift from producing food to be consumed in the local village to producing food for the national market a. Pastures and woods previously open to communal use by the peasantry were changed to, enclosed privately controlled plots used to produce wool, meat and hides for the market privatization b. peasantry were forced of their lands (peasantry had worked land for feudal lord but did not own it) and became impoverished c. they were left with nothing but their labor power (ability to work) d. people were forced into vagrancy or into urban areas to work in factories e. purpose of this movement: to increase agricultural production to feed people in the urban areas working in factories and to reduce the rural population f. as more and more people were forced to leave, this created a surplus of possible workers in urban areas, so helped set conditions for early capitalism g. this enclosure movement was adopted elsewhere throughout the world as industrial capitalism spread 3. This led to a series of organizational changes that resulted in alienation & cultural disruption a. alienation from one's land and means of production (e.g., means of acquiring food and fuel) b. alienation from one's cultural traditions c. disruption and alienation from friends and family who dispersed to different places d. alienation of one's labor power from the person himself 4. This organizational change helped to promote the Industrial Revolution by providing products for consumption by industrial laborers. 5. Very important as it was a prototype for capitalist development elsewhere throughout the world even in the present (it recurs again and again, from Brazil, to India, to Jamaica, all colonies; modern development) British colonialism, discussed last class in our power point, also involved Enclosures of lands that were colonized and controlled by the empire B. Patterns accompanying industrial capitalism 1. Heightened consumption patterns as with the need for more food for workers a. These continue to increase to the point of depleting resources (thus leading to the search for resources in colonies) 2 b. The use of nonrenewable energy resources, such as fossil fuels, allows for greater use of energy than can be replaced contrasts with previous cultures that had achieved stable consumption patterns through renewable sources of energy 2. Dramatic increases in population growth a. European population doubled, despite massive exodus to the U.S. b. The poulation of the U.S. tripled during this time 3. There is a pressure to overconsume and to create waste products and ecological imbalance a. This further promoted a global system relying on colonialism (as we saw in the last class) since capitalist centers could not continue to survive on their own. Let’s now see Adam’s smith’s emic view of emergent capitalism, as someone who defined its terms. III. A dam Smith a Scottish Enlightenment economist A. part of European Enlightenment, 1500s to late 1700s 1. a reaction to the brutal authority of Church and State 2. science and reason would "free" people from the injustices of Church & State 3. Thus reason became the tool for escaping injustice. Reason was seen as an aspect of the autonomous individual B. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776): "liberal economic theory" 1. Adam Smith's emic view of capitalism a. Why does Bodley call Adam Smith's description of capitalism an "emic" view? (Because he was a founder of its principles and so describes them clearly and honestly in an early view of the capitalist market economy ) C. Adam Smith's "Invisible Hand" of the market place 1. faith in free enterprise system natural market forces that should be left alone a. This is what is meant by the "Invisible Hand" of the market place that there are natural laws maintaining orderly economic growth Thus government should stay out of the way "laissezfaire" economy (literally,"to let to do") or deregulation b. Social wellbeing was achieved by individuals' naturally pursuing self interest without government interference. 3 through "trickle down economy" (similar to Reagan 200 yrs later) 2. private ownership of land and labor specialists were marks of a market economy a. the land owner received rent for his land and accumulated capital for manufacturing using labor specialists b. labor specialists enabled great increases in production and received a wage 3. Smith argued for a "family wage" to support children and ensure continous supply of future workers a. workers should receive the lowest possible wages that could support 4 people b. This is determined by minimal requirements to maintain a worker and enough to allow him to reproduce future workers assumption that only two children would survive Yet wages had to be high enough to give workers incentive to improve production c. Wages were directly linked to the number of workers available law of supply/demand equation. The more available workers, the lower the wages. if wage were too high, too many children (future workers) would be produced, wages would be low and infant mortality would rise. This would result in a shortage of workers and higher wages again. d. Manufacturers were at an advantage in dispute over wages as they had stores of wealth could last about one year; workers could only last about one week. So while manufacturers had to depend on laborers, they could hold out for a much longer time than the laborers who depended on them 4. The wage was secured in a "legal" social contract a. ideologically supported liberal Enlightenment notions of the autonomous rational individual, supposedly "free" to negotiated the exchange of his labor power for a wage. (This masked the reality that the worker's "free choices" were constrained by the lack of other choices and fear of starvation.) 5. Smith's concept of economy was "disembodied" existing apart from society and understood independent of society a. it assumed that people were naturally individualistic and selfish b. social wellbeing tied to individualistic pursuits that led to economic prosperity c. disembodied economy, instead of a moral economy, embedded in the social life and wellbeing of the community 4 6. Thus capitalism, as conceived by Adam Smith had several unique features a. divorced labor from social life (anyone from anywhere worked in a factory) a form of alienation b. It turned ancestral land (like native American, or the aboriginal land), its products and people into commodities, alienated from their history and social meaning c. it aims to create continuous profits d. the elite new capitalist class profited by far the most from its growth 7. To sum up, features of Adam Smith's liberal economy a. private property b. government deregulation a "laissezfaire" (to let to do) economy i. "trickledown" economy c. socially disembodied, not moral economy 8. Adam Smith set foundations for a Neoliberalism today a. Deregulation of markets no government interference b. Privitization of public goods open to bidding on the global market health, schools/ education, social security prisons land (enclosure) water bridges (US bridges being built by private Chinese firms) electricity/ public utilities c. Free trade between countries a newer aspect of neoliberalism associated with globalization (the closest connection to free trade relates to workers coming from many regions (mainly rural areas) to work in urban areas unfamiliar to them. Today, free trade is global). The term Neoliberalism , as defined in Widipedia, is most commonly used to refer to economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets, privatization, deregulation, and enhancing the role of the private sector in modern society. Today the term is mostly used as a general condemnation of economic liberalization policies and its advocates 5 Ant 170, UNIT III, Lecture 3 (Week 9b) Review of all material from the last class, including: (a) Adam Smith's emic view of capitalism a liberal economic philosophy (b) Comparison of Adam Smith's liberal economy with neoliberalism today (c) Discussed the Enclosure Movement i. paving the way to factory production through the Industrial Revolution ii. a prototype for capitalist development even today I. Events paving the way to the Industrial Revolution A. Enclosure movement in 1400s 1. to intensify production of wool for a growing market 2. Promoted Europe's developing textile industry B. "Putting out system"/ cottage industry 1. merchants supplied raw materials to weavers to produce cloth 2. Merchants then picked up finish pieces, paying per item 2. Called "protoindustrial revolution" C. Early factories 1. Brought all textile workers spinners, dyers, weavers together in one place 2. encouraged speed and efficiency and increased production 3. encouraged urbanization, peasants expelled from land to find work D. Enclosure movement in 1700s 1. Expelled peasants from land, totally disrupting feudal system 2. to intensify production of crops, animals for meat and clothing for growing number of factory workers II. The Industrial Revolution A. Both a technological and cultural revolution 1. This term places too much emphasis on technology 2. There also had to have been cultural changes to promote technological innovations previous separation of universities and industry now an interest in bringing in research to improve technology for increased production and greater efficiency B. Development of assembly line as a new way to organize labor 1. Scientific method of Rene Descartes (to break down a problem into component parts) and Francis Bacon (inductive) 2. The scientific method paralleled the capitalist labor process a. It provided a formal procedure to be followed without intellectual 1 engagement b. Later in the U.S., 1911 onward FrederickTaylor used a Baconian scientific methodology was used to organize industry in the U.S. and promote capitalist development productive activity was to be reduced to its "mechanical physical aspect" the laborer was to be reduced to (in the words of Taylor) "a trained gorilla" C. The Industrial Revolution neutralized the concept of social justice 1. Preindustrial cultures used "subjective criteria" of social justice to regulate wages (This meant the group themselves (like the aborigine hunters and gatherers decided who should get what, and made sure that everyone was well taken care of. As they were accountable for each other and faced each other every day, they tried to be caring and fair.) 2. Capitalism, however, worked by a particular logic the logic of profit and accumulation. (Thus it demanded neutral, nonsubjective criteria to regulate wages, not according to what was humanly just, but according to a rational logic (what we today call "liberalism") that would promote capital accumulation by the owners of production. if this meant wages had to suffer, so be it the "logic" of capital (“rationalizations”) an amoral system D. Karl Polanyi The Great Transformation 1943 See Robbins, p. 66 1. Called the technological shift to the Industrial Revolution, "the Great Transformation" 2. Major question was, "what should be the role of government?" 3. Tension between a. government noninterference /deregulation/ free reign market encouraging free markets, disrupting social and natural relations and . b. government regulation to prevent social and natural damages, with the risk that overregulation could destroy markets 4. Advantages of free markets/ Deregulation: the Neoliberal" view a. cheaper, more standard products b. greater efficiency in production c. less government bureaucracy and paperwork d. Adam Smith's perspective in Wealth of Nations 1776 5. Disadvantages of deregulating markets a. Can encourage monopolies b. prevents success of smaller companies that offer variation c. encourages exploitation of workers (leading to poor wages or loss of jobs) 2 d. encourages exploitation of resources without environmental controls (leading to pollution and health concerns) III. Economic Principles (relevant to capitalism) A. Basic concepts 1. mode of production the way a society organizes its technology and labor (sometimes defined as the forces of production & social relations of production) 2. social relations of production: the way in which human labor is organized by people (In capitalist societies these are "class relations") 3. forces of production the technology as a component of mode of production (this could include factories and even labor power used in factories) 4. means of production the means of subsistence (e.g., using land for Agriculture; the Pumpkinville Mystery farmers) 5. usevalue versus exchange value 6. capital: a. land and tools as the means of production; b. the accumulated wealth returned into the productive process to accumulate more wealth 7. Commodities basic products produced for their exchange value in a capitalist market economy to procure profit as accumulated capital (Even people become commodities in capitalist societies.) 8. Its goal: unending accumulation of profit 9. Capitalist systems were distinguished in their creating a monetary market in which labor power (free labor) would be sold and purchased a. This did something remarkable: it alienated a person's labor power as something separate from the person, to be sold on the market, like any other thing. b. The alienation of a person from their labor power was codified in the "neutral" capitalist contract, which exchanged a wage for labor power this is another example of "fetishism" in which a human quality (ability to work/"labor power") is reduced to the level of a thing (in this case) to be sold on the market for cash 3 contract drawn up between industrialist and laborer. It required that both parties be "rational" and so this was something they both had agreed to. c. However, capitalist systems emerged when the peasantry were pushed off their land, and means of subsistence and forced to sell their labor power in order to continue to survive for this reason, the notion of the "neutral" labor contract has been regarded by some as a farce, as the laborer had no other choice 10. Wealth is produced both by consumption and production a. Consumption by buying at a profit to seller b. Production by extracting wealth by underpaying workers ("the labor theory of value") c. those who can neither produce nor consume are expendable in this system B. Competition/cooperation among capitalists 1. Capitalists compete with one another for a greater share of the market 2. Since the 1970s in the U.S., however, capitalists (the largest corporations) have joined forces as a class to lobby for probusiness tax reform, labor law reform and rolling back the welfare state (including benefits to the elderly) (Myles in Minkler and Estes 1991:293). 3. And beyond the U.S., capitalists also cooperate together. Look at multinational corporations, World Trade Organization, NAFTA, TPP IV. Theorists of Capitalism A. Max Weber and the capitalist ethic : The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 1930 1.Calvinism and work ethic as supporting capitalism a. belief that hard work and self denial would lead to salvation b. precisely the behaviors needed in a capitalist economy c. creating wealth replaced good works as an avenue to heaven B. World system Theorist 1: Emmanuel Wallenstein 1970 1. Every nation is part of an economic system that integrates the world 2. This occurs without the need for a central state (national government) 3. This occurs on the basis of unequal exchange on an international market. a. Unequal exchange allows the rich industrial nations to accumulate capital at the cost of the poorer nations on the outside of the core. b. leads to underdevelopment of poor nations, whose resources go to the rich 4 c. Draws on Andre Gunder Frank's 3 types of nations (see below) 4. The key to the success of the capitalist world system is twofold a. a world division of labor that allowed for an unequal distribution of benefits and exploitation of those on the periphery (e.g., multinational corporations and those working in sweat shops) b. Racist or similar divisive ideologies that justify these inequalities in terms of differences in merit of the various groups (African backwardness during colonialism; Greek, Spanish laziness today) the argument is that the failure of third world nations (or second world, or even 1st world nations that have lost economic power) to become more developed is the result of their the cultural or natural inferiority of groups on the periphery on the periphery C. World System Theorist II: Andre Gunder Frank (1967) Dependency theory 1. Divided the modern world system into a core, periphery and semiperiphery (concepts adopted by Wallerstein) a. Core consisted of rich industrial nations who become richer through the process of unequal exchange at the world system "first world, developed" nations typically, the colonizing nations b. Periphery those poor nations who were forcibly integrated into the world system for their raw materials and initially as slave labor. 3rd world, Developing nations they were the very poor post colonial nations c. Semiperiphery an intermediate area in which people were integrated into the capitalist system through as very cheap labor "2nd world," Southern & Eastern European nations; also post Soviet/ Communist nations of eastern Europe d. The periphery and semiperiphery become dependent on the core. If time permits: the Pumpkinville Mystery 5