Geography 178 Class Notes 9/19
Geography 178 Class Notes 9/19 GEOG 178
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Pankratz on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 178 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Professor Cyril Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Conservation of Environment in Geography at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Geography 178 Conservation of the Environment Class Notes 9/19 Demography and Human Population As of September 2016, 7.4 billion people in the world Demography- study of human population (growth/decline, birth/death rates, migration movement of people- immigration/emigration, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, etc.) Demography is used to help shape population policies (example: China’s 1 child policy) Global Demographics: 280 children born every minute 109 people die every minute World population grows by 171 every minute 1/3 of deaths are of children under age 5 Number of elderly people increases rapidly Population Growth in Recent Centuries: 1825- 1 billion 1928- 2 billion 1960- 3 billion 1974- 4 billion 1987- 5 billion 1999- 6 billion 2012- 8 billion 2024- 8 billion 2037- 9 billion 2056- 9 billion Shows more rapid population growth (increases by 1 billion in shorter periods of time) Most of population growth is in less developed countries (97%), 3% of growth is in more developed countries Concerns with rapid population growth: Food shortages/famines Fossil fuel burning Air/water pollution Landscape destruction/deforestation Loss of biodiversity Basic Demographic Indices - Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Annual number of live births per 1,000 people CBR=n/p(1000) n= number of live births p=total population 2016 CBR is 20 births per 1,000 people (higher in less developed countries) - Crude Death Rate (CDR) Number of deaths per 1,000 people CDR=d/p(1000) d= number of deaths p= population 2016 CDR is 8 deaths per 1,000 (higher in less developed countries) - Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) Difference between CBR and CDR (average 1.13% annually) Higher in less developed countries, lower in more developed countries (Europe- 0%, Africa- 2.6%) World RNI decreasing over time (gender roles have changed, more access to/knowledge of birth control/contraceptives, etc.) Negative RNI means population decrease - Total Fertility Rate Average number of children that would be born per woman in given amount of time (usually 1 year)- assumes all sexually reproductive women give birth World TFR- 2.5 (higher in less developed countries) Fertility rate below 2.1 will cause population decline Varies between world regions and countries - Doubling Time- “Rule of 70” Number of years it will take for a population to double Growth Rate/Doubling Time: United States 0.4%/175 years Nicaragua 1.9%/37 years Niger 3.9%/18 years Denmark 0.1%/700 years Plan conservation of resources, health care, education, etc Population Pyramid- divided according to gender/age group (shows rapid, slow, and zero growth) Infant Mortality Rate Number of babies per 1,000 that die before age 1 World IMR- 36 deaths per 1,00 live births (higher in developing countries) Young and old population- proportion of young population indicates potential for a population to grow or decline Globally, 26% of population is under age 15, 8% is 65 or older Life expectancy- average number of years a person is expected to live Provides information about health/wellbeing of a society, higher in developing countries, lower in more developed countries Population distribution- spatial pattern of population in an area (dense, moderate, or sparse) Population density- number of people per unit of land area (square miles/kilometers) World population density- 53 people per square km
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