Ancient Cities Ch 3
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Towson University taught by Gadotti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Ancient Cities Sep 22 nd(No lecture notes for the 20 )h Akkadian Empire: 2350 BCE Founder of the dynasty (In order of succession) o Sargon (56yrs) Rimush (9yrs) Manishtu (15yrs) Naram-Sin (56yrs) Issues understanding the Akkad Empire o No capital Evidence from Old Akkadian period o Administrative documents o Royal inscriptions o Obelisks o The Victory stele of Naram-sin (2240 BCE) Stele of Naram-sin (Old Akkadian) Vs Stele of the Vulture (Early Dynastic) o In the Early Dynastic: King was the intermediary between the people and the God’s and led them into battle but the God was the savior or victor of the battle o In the Old Akkadian: The king was the victor/ savior of the battle but was held in favor by the Gods o However Naram-Sin is the first king to declare himself god on the Bassetki inscription A temple was built to honor the “god-king” Fell due to unknown reasons and civilization reverted back to city states Gudea of Lagash King of 2nddynasty Lagash Commissioned statues that depicted him as a religious ruler, they were inscribed with his building activities These activities were primarily the rebuilding of the Temples of Ningirsu a plan of this temple was inscribed on the lap of one of these statues This is the first example we have of the king has being an architect Ur III (2100-2000 BCE) 50 Years after the fall of Akkad Called the Ur III because it is the third time kingship returned to Ur The Ur kingdom conquered all of southern Mesopotamia Ur-Namma of Ur ruled for 15 years Art found inside the foundations of the temple show the king as the rebuilder of the temple for the Gods Shulgi ruled for 48 years o Changes to Ur under this o The introduction of a Ziggurat o Standardization Measurements, Laws, weights, clothing, building, “currency” (in the form of silver rods), calendars, taxes, education, religion o Parts of Ur Core: The heartland arranged into at least 20 providences controlled by a 2 tier administration Ancient Cities Sep 22 nd(No lecture notes for the 20 ) Periphery: The buffer zone between the core and the states/region States/region: Areas of conflict that went in and out of the control of Ur o Ur III Collapses due to external forces, the goveners of the providences rebelling and creating their own kingdom, as well as the king being captured and exiled Old Babylonia period (2000-1600 BCE) Domestic Architecture with no homogeneity(the homes were not standardized or organized) No central planning The street level was higher than the floor level in homes Homes were likely two stories o Evidence for this is the stairs found just inside the front doors EM was the housing district for temple workers AH was the financial district and the largest district Primiliary conclusions General features o Long process: The development of cities took a long time o Autochthonous: indeginous meaning the concept of cities came from them not an outside force Urban features o Temples in the center o City walls o Residential levels o Storage rooms o Palaces in the center if space allows o Workshops/areas of production o Open areas ( Streets, courtyards, etc) Chapter 3 Ancient Cities Chapter 3: Mesopotamian cities in the late third and second millennia BC The Akkadians (2350-2150 BC) o Sargon the King of Akkad conquered the entire region of southern Mesopotamia o His likeness may be preserved in a life-sized bronze statue the eyes and ears of the statue were damaged perhaps intentionally o This empire was considered the first empire o Sargon’s activities and those of his successors are reported in cuneiform tablets o Sargon’s language Akkadian was written in a modern cuneiform script based on the Sumerian o Enheduanna (daughter of Sargon) became a priestess of Nanna the moon god of Sumerian Ur o Mortal rulers were now elevated to the position of Gods o The stele of Naram-Sin Parabola shaped slab of pink sandstone One side commemorates an Akkadian victory over the Lullubi This stele shows him as a god The Gutians (2150-2000 BC) o Conquourers of akkadians ruled for less than a century The Sumerians: 2 period (2125-2000 BC) o Neo-Sumerian period When city states restablished themselves o Gudea of Lagash This king is always represented as a worshiper He was the rebuilder of the temple of Ningirsu Ur III period: Third dynasty of Ur (2100-2000 BC) o Religious center Devoted to the cult of Nanna and Nigal The ziggurat was restored by successive kings 3 stories each smaller than the one below Some theorize that the terraces were planted with trees o Stele of Ur-Nammu This stele stresses the king’s adoration of the gods o Private houses No straight wide streets at regular intervals Trash was randomly discarded into the street Two stories around open air courts walls from street were unadorned Dead were buried under the ground floor Small shrines were located at street crossings Hammurabi of Babylon and the old Babylonian period o Had his laws inscribed on a near-cylindrical basalt stele 2.1m high (Stele of Hammurabi) o Seated with the god Chapter 3 Ancient Cities o Almost a relationship of equals o The city of Mari is the best known city because of the 20,000 tablets, architecture, and art o Taxes were imposed in this city all goods passed through these tax systems o Kingship was an umbrella that covered the secular and religious aspects of administration o The palace was large with two courtyards at its heart o A painting above the wall showed that the king has the blessing of the gods 3 tiers of winged human headed lions are shown which is a creature much loved in Mesopotamian mythology
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