Aegean Notes from weeks 5 and 6
Aegean Notes from weeks 5 and 6 AAH 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Prehistoric Aegean Precedes Greece in Western Europe. The island of Crete is featured in Homer’s epic, Iliad. The land is separated by lots of water that brings about trade and travel to and from other cultures. Between the Aegean era and Greece, there is a dark period that is a devastation to art and culture. Stone Age: Paleolithic (30,000-9,000 BCE) Mesolithic (9,000-8,000 BCE) Neolithic (8,000-2,300 BCE) Bronze Age (2,000-1,400 BCE) Iron Age (c. 1,000 BCE in Europe) Prehistoric Aegean: Early Cycladic Art c. 3,000-2,000 BCE Late Minoan Art c. 1,600-1,200 BCE Mycenaean (Late Helladic) Art c. 1,600-1,200 BCE Cycladic- Cycladic Islands Minoan- Crete and Thera Mycenaean- mainland Greece Cycladic They have tools for carving Figurine of a woman, from Syros (Cyclades), Greece, c 2600-2300 BCE, Marble- Stylized figure. The figure is reduced to basic forms and abstracted from a natural representation. The female’s breasts and genitalia are present in these sculptures and their function remains a mystery. These were kept in homes and on graves perhaps for rituals. The pieces lay on graves and are portable and not created to stand. The angular and basic forms of female sculptures are recreated in modern sculptures. Male harp player, from Keros (Cyclades, Greece, c 2600-2300 ce, Marble- A man seated in a chair, playing a harp may be a representation of Apollo or some other musical god. Its purpose is unknown. The formal qualities are similar to the Figure of a woman previously shown. He is made with basic forms, very linear and rounded. Linear B Tablet from Knossos, c 1200 BCE- The pieces are found in many countries which tells us the importance of trade. Covered in writing Linear A- the writing was never deciphered but was used for trading. Around the era of 1460 BCE there is a shared language Aerial View (looking northeast) of the palace at Knossos (Crete), Greece, c 1700- 1370- Now, mostly in ruins- what is not seen are the walls surrounding it suggesting they were protecting themselves from invaders. Labryinth- reflects the idea of a double edged axe, a labrys. The myth of the Minotaur brings about the labyrinth, the maze under the palace at Knossos. Stairwell in the residential quarter of the palace at Knossos, 1700-1370 BCE- The Minoan columns taper so that the top is wider than the bottom with a bulbous capital at the top. The columns are painted and hollow so that the rain water flowed down through it. The opening in the ceiling allows for the rainwater to enter. Megaron- the queen’s room Bull-leaping, from the palace at Knossos, c 1400-1370 BCE, Fresco- A fresco is painted pigment onto lime plaster and must be painted faster and in portions making it look like stone. The Minoan aesthetic is very dynamic and has a sense of movement. The bull is jumping and a man attempts to jump over him. The men are in profile, from the palview, however, are more curvilinear. Minoan figures often feature a pinched waist, long hair, and small shoes. Minoan woman or goddess (La Parisienne), palace at Knossos, c 1400-1370- Called “the Parisian” which is an incorrect name simiar to “Venus of Willendorf”. The hair and headdress are suggestive of authority. Kamares-Ware jar, Phaistos (Crete), c 1800-1700 BCE- Late Cycladic period. Features fish and other works continue to feature the marine life. Snake Goddess, from the palace at Knossos, (Crete), c 1600BCE Faience- A common representation of a woman in that the woman is in a dress with the top open exposing her breasts. This woman is holding snake; this tells us she is a god that is able to control them. Snakes may represent Earth deities or male fertility. She too, has a small waist. Harvester Vase, from Hagia Triada (Crete), Greece, c 1500-1450 BCE, Steatite, originally with gold leaf- Represents a prototypical Minoan style of work by its representation of the figures. They are dynamic and individualized by their movement and expressions. There is great detail in representing the muscles and bones. The negative space shows wheat or some sort of crop behind the 27 overlapping figures. Horror vacui- the fear of empty space End of the Minoan period (c. 1400 BCE?) - The center of power is shifted. The palace in destroyed by 1200 BCE. The Mycenaeans occupied Crete by 1450. Mycenaeans had fortified citadels to protect from invasion. We are not sure what ended the civilization. Aerial view of the citadel at Tiryns, Greece, c. 1400-1200 BCE- In case of attack, the community living outside the citadel could enter for protection. The layout of the interior is organized space Cyclopean Masonry- stonework using large boulders that fit together leaving no gaps and without mortar. The Greeks believed that only the Cyclopes were able to build with these big stones. Corbeled vault- each successive course of (layer) stone is projected inward, or cantilevered, creating an arch Lion Gate, Mycenae, Greece, c. 1300-1250 BCE, limestone, relief panel- A triangle relief of two symmetrical lions separate by column, creating a relieving triangle. The grandeur of the structure could intimidate invaders. By using this relieving triangle atop the post and lintel entrance, some weight is taken off the structure. Heraldic composition- two figures beside a central figure, a way of organizing space Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, c 1300-1250 BCE- the triangle opening gives relief of some pressure on the post and lintel Tholos tomb- beehive tomb Tumulus- earthen burial mound Mycenaean chamber tomb- rock-cut Funerary mask, from Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Greece, c 1600-1500 BCE, beaten gold- Mycenaean culture was very wealthy. The mask shows the man’s eyes closed and is more individualized and shows age or the deceased. The work is a repousse. Repousse- gold sheet hammered to create image Inlaid dagger blade with lion hunt, from Grave circle A, Mycenae, Greece, c 1600- 1500 BCE, bronze, inlaid with gold, silver, and niello- The inlay depicts a dynamic hunting scene. It shows the hunters pushing the lions back as if to say they are superior to the animals. Hunter capturing a bull, drinking cup from Vapheio, near Sparta, Greece, c 1600- 1500 BCE- another repousse creation. This is an example of the wealth of this civilization. Warriors Vase, from Mycenae, Greece, c 1200 BCE- The warriors are very flat and stylized. All figures look the same and are positioned in the same way. Large frontal eyes and torso with the rest of the body in profile view like the Egyptians. Little sense of place or narrative. This suggests possibly the end of the Mycenaean civilization. From 1200-800 BCE is roughly the Dark Age. Coming from that is a new alphabet for writing. About 750 BCE, after Dark Age, Greek production ensues again. 776-the first Olympic games. Geometric Art & Orientalizing c. 900-600 BCE Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens Greece, c. 740 BCE- Krater’s appears in cemeteries. The scene on the krater depicts mourning. The pulling the hair gesture is a symbol of mourning. The figures are reduced to flat, angular shapes. This shows the return of the human figure and a return to narrative. This relates to Minoan pottery in that the waists of the figures are pinched. The figures feature a profile head and frontal eye as seen in Egyptian culture. Meander- pattern created from continuous line border Hero and Centaur, Olympia, Greece, c 750-730 BCE, Bronze- The centaur is half man and half horse composite creature. The story is Herakles battles Nessos who threatened his wife. Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos, from Thebes, Greece, c. 700-680 BCE, Bronze- People were moving around thus influencing the artwork. The statuette may have been holding a bow and arrow but is missing one arm. The waist is pinched. Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes, from Rhodes, Greece,c 625- 600 BCE- the pot is covered in black then the image is cut out of it. Lady of Auxerre, c 650-325, limestone- Daedalic sculpture- of the oriental time. Any god or goddess is always clothed at this time. Daedalic- Greek sculpture with Eastern influence, known as Orientalizing Archaic Artc 600-180 BCE Kouros, Attica, Greece, c 600 BCe, Marble- This statue is more life-like size. The figure is very stiff and conforming of the block. Not representative of anyone, very generalized. Kouros- generalized ideal figure in Greece, male, ideal body type Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, c 530 BCE, marble- Same pose as Kouros but with a realistic figure. It has an archaic smile to suggest the deceased man is alive. Calf Bearer (Moschophoros), Greece, c 560BCE, marble- The figure is an older man that is clothed and has a beard, therefore, he is not a kouros. He is holding the calf around his neck with archaic smile. Peplos Kore, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, c 530 BCE, marble- female figure is a Koura with archaic smile. She is more naturalistic than Lady of Auxerre. She is covered by a long dress. Ezekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, from Vulci, Italy, c 540-530 BCE- The vessel is a narrative of the two gods playing a game of dice. There are words near the figures as if they are speaking. The narrative is seen on one side of the vessel so not necessarily a work in the round. The figures are rendered similarly to the Egyptian norm with their flat profile bodies and frontal eye. Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, Orvieto, Italy, c 525-520 BCE, black figure side and red figure side- The vessel is covered in black and the image is created by removing the glaze to outline the figures and negative space, leaving them black, or removing the inside of the figures, leaving them red. Temple of Hera I (Basilica), Italy, c 550 BCE- Features swollen columns in a colonnade. Colonnade- row of columns