PSY 201 Mind and Brain Week 1
PSY 201 Mind and Brain Week 1 PSY 201
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexys Johnson on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
PSY 201 Mind and Brain Week 1 Sept 27-29 Class Notes Sept 27: 1. History of Psychology a. The study of mind brain and behavior i. Using objective measures to determine the natural laws 1. Reproducible 2. No bias 3. Publicly observable 4. Specific principles held to be derive from nature and therefore universal and predictable 2. What is the difference between the mind and the brain? a. Brain i. Physical structure b. Mind i. The “software” of a computer 3. The mind body problem a. Dualism (Plato) i. Two distinct things 1. Descartes (soul controlled the body through the pineal gland) b. Monism i. Hippocrates (brain is the seat of thought and emotions) ii. Aristotle (heart is the seat of the emotions; brain is just a cooling organ) *heat leaves the head 1. Hobbes (materialism) nothing exists except matter and energy, the mind is just the processes of the brain c. Phrenology (a bunch of bull) i. The study of the structure of the skull to determine a person’s character and mental capacity 1. Franz J. Gall- founder of phrenology a. The brain is the organ of the mind b. The mind is composed of distinct innate faculties (organs) c. Because they are distinct, each one must have a different location in the brain d. The bigger your math area the better you are at math e. The shape of the brain is determined by the various organs The skull takes the shape of the brain, which can show what you are good at because those organs are lager. Which has been disproven. However, some parts of the brain do sort of get larger due to brain placidity. Sept 29: Modularity of mental functions: a commonly accepted principle that mental functions can be divided into separate categories/ independent processes 1. Aphasia a. Deficit in language processing 2. Broca’s Aphasia a. In the left half of the brain (language processing) b. Can’t produce words, but can understand words i. Saying “tom” over and over but nothing else, and feeling frustrated because the person can understand that they cannot speak properly 3. Wernicke’s Aphasia a. Right next to Broca’s area b. Can produce speech that does not make sense, and cannot understand speech i. Saying a bunch of words that is complete gibberish and does not make since, yet says them in confidence because that person does not understand what they are saying 4. Behavioral Psychology a. Wilhelm Wundt i. Tried to figure out how long it takes the brain to react to a stimulus ii. Created elemental decision time which is the time that is added when the mental tasks increase in difficulty 1. Pressing a button when you see a red dot vs. saying what color dot appears 5. Introspectionism a. The study of conscious mental events by “introspecting” or “looking within” (into one’s own thoughts) 6. Structuralism a. Founded by Titchener b. Uses analysis of aspects of human cognition, behavior, culture, and experience that focuses on relationships of contrast between elements in a conceptual system that reflect patterns underlying a superficial diversity 7. Problems with Introspection a. Variability i. One person’s impressions often vary from person to person b. Verification i. A lack of public access to introspections, and misconceptions can almost never be detected c. Reliance on Consciousness i. Many things we do are unconscious, which makes it hard to measure only conscious behaviors d. It provides access to products of thinking rather than the processes that underlie it 8. Apparent Motion (Phi) a. As patterns change a person’s perception changes 9. Gestalt Psychology a. The whole of the experience is more than the sum of its parts 10.Behaviorism a. Founded by John Watson 1913 b. The mind is like a “black box”, meaning that you can see inside the mind when observing a person’s behaviors i. Skinner Box 1. A box in which mice and pigeons learned that by pulling a lever, food would be released, and by doing so Skinner trained them to pull the lever by flashing a light 11.Problems with Behaviorism a. Insufficiency i. Behaviorism cannot account for a person’s creativity b. Narrow scope i. Limited to only the observable things, ie. A person’s body language 12.Cognitive Science a. Considers the mental processing as the software of the mind b. Mental mapping i. Being able to know the way home by just seeing it in your mind c. Hippocampus i. Plays a large role in memory 13.Cognitive Neuroscience a. Considers the brain as the hardware of the mind