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Music 100 Chapter 6

by: Smruti Notetaker

Music 100 Chapter 6 MUS 100

Smruti Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 6 about Baroque Music. Will be on next test.
Introduction to Music
Javier Mendoza
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smruti Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 100 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Javier Mendoza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at University of Illinois at Chicago.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 6  Baroque Culture o Arts used to celebrate and to support those in political power o Churches and palaces richly ornamented o Ornamentation also in painting and sculpture; active, dramatic scenes and figures o Laborers created building and art for the church and ruling class  Baroque Music o Purposes/Performers  Music composed for and performed for or by aristocracy  Music for aristocracy performed un homes and in public  Sings and danced also performed in alehouses and streets for average citizens o Characteristics  Constant motion  Use of ornaments (melodic decoration)  Use of contrasts (loud, then quiet phrase)  Songs written by average citizens not written down  Opera origins o Began in Italy, circa 1600 o Florentine camerata (society of scholars and musicians)  Added melodies to Greek dramas  Emphasized clarity of text  Rhythm followed textual accents  Early Opera Vocal Style o Monody  Solo singer  Accompaniment  Homophonic texture o Basso continuo (also called continuo)  Accompanied monody  Bass instrument (cello or bassoon) + chordal instrument (lute, harpsichord, or organ)  Figured bass: Bass line with numbers indicating harmonies for chordal instrument to improvise  Baroque Opera Vocal Styles o Recitative  Speech like, served as dialogue  Flexible rhythm  Usually limited accompaniment  Early operas were recitative o Arioso  More lyrical then recitative  More melodic and expressive the recitative o Aria  Expansion of arioso style  Songlike, focus of opera  Could stand alone outside of the opera  In da capa arias (ABA form) singers embellish the repeat of the A section  Opera Chorus o Included to represent groups of people o Often had homophonic texture so that audience could understand text o Repetition of text by opera chorus was common  Opera Firsts o Jacopo Peri  Euridice (1600)  Earliest surviving opera from the camerata  Almost entirely recitative o Francesca Caccini  First known female opera composer  La Liberazione di Ruggerio first opera to be performed outside of Italy  Baroque Italian Opera Composer: Claudio Monteverdi o Life spanned Renaissance into baroque (1567-1643) o Composed madrigals and operas o First master of opera o His Orfeo (1607) introducing opera as a major art form, including:  Costumes  Staging and lighting  Forty instrumentalists, chorus, dancers  Listening Guide: “Tu se’morta” (You are Dead”) from Act Two of Monterverdi’s Orfeo o The libretto (“book” or the text) changing from original legend to operatic version to provide happy ending  Opera Audiences o Italy  Originally for aristocracy  Public opera houses by 1637  Entertainment for middle classes and nobility o Across Europe  Opera spread  Works composed and performed in Italian and in vernacular  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) o Composed sacred and secular music o Composed vocal and instrumental works o Organists at Westminster Abbey and Chapel Royal o Composed funeral music for Queen Mary o Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas considered first English opera  Featured Listening “Thy Hand, Belinda” and “When I am Laid in Earth” from Act Three of Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas o Adapted from Virgil’s Aeneid o Operatic recitative/aria; Homophonic texture o Solo soprano with string and accompaniment o Aria employs a five-measure ground bass (repeating bass melody)  The Orchestra o The orchestra began during the baroque period o Orchestras first used to accompany singers o Royalty and wealthy families hired musicians and composer- conductors to provide instrumental music o Orchestras originally consisted of only bowed stringed instruments  Water Music o Handel composed Water Music for King George II of England in 1717 o Composed to be performed for the king and guests on a barge on the river Thames o Water Music can be divided into three suites of dances o Performances of this work on the king’s barge did not include the harpsichord because of limited space  Listening Guide “Minuet” from “Water Music” by George Frederic Handel o Orchestral suite o Homophonic texture o ABA form (minuet and trio) o Triple meter o Strings, horns, oboes, bassoon, harpsichord  The Concerto o From the Latin word concertare which means to fight or contend o Composers applied this idea in music by contrasting dissimilarly sized groups of instruments o Concertos developed out of the baroque interest in contrasting soft and loud sounds o Types of concertos  Concerto Grosso  Small solo group and orchestra  Solo concerto  Solo instrument and orchestra  Concerto Grosso o Mulltimovement work contrasting a small group of solo instruments (Concertino) and full orchestra (ripieno) o Three movement structure (fast-slow-fast) most common o Ritornello  The Brandenburg Concertos o Bach composed music for court orchestras, particularly at Anhalt- Cothen o Six works dedicated to Christian Ludwig, the margrave of Brandenburg o Three follow Concerto Grosso style of concentration and ripieno groups o Back created timbre contrast within the concertino as well as between concerto and ripieno  Listening Guide: Brandenburg Concerto no.5 first movement by J.S. Bach o Concerto Grosso o Allegro tempo o Ritornello form (typically for first movement) o Quadruple meter o Concertino: flute, violin, harpsichord  The Harpsichord o Shaped like a small grand piano  The Ripieno Concerto o Ripieno plays without a solo instrument or group  Solo Concerto o Desire for more contrast led to solo concerto  Antonio Vivaldi o Born in Venice, Italy and died in Vienna, Austria o Violinist father taught him how to play violin o Le Quattro Stagioni (The Four Seasons)  Listening Guide: “Spring” second movement  Characterisics of Baroque Music o Texture- Homophone; polyphonic o Tonality- major-minor with dissonance used for specific effect o Rhythm- Measured o Singing Style- Monody, recitative, aria, arioso, large-scale, choral works o Large Vocal Works- Opera, oratorio, Passion, Mass, Cantata


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