Comm 121 Lecture 6 Note
Comm 121 Lecture 6 Note Comm 121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jieun Son on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 121 at University of Massachusetts taught by Lisa Henderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media & Culture in Communication at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
COMM 121 Print Media Expand and Audience Back to Print and the Late 19th Century Newspaper Expanding the audience as revenue strategy Quote: Dallas Smythe on using newspapers and magazines as marketing tools in the late 19th century. o “From Canadian historian Dallas Smythe on using newspapers and magazines as marketing tools in the late 19th century: There remained newspapers and magazines as possible mass marketing agents if they could be modernized; by the 1880s, the form of the present stereotypical North AmericanBritish newspaper enterprise was mature. Patterned on the sensational "editorial" content associated with the names of Pulitzer and Hearst in the United States, and Northcliffe and Pearson in Britain, and conceived of as a marketing mechanism to produce readerships for sale to advertisers, the mass media had been systematically innovated.” 1 2 social roles for mass0audience newspapers in the late 19th century. a Commercial: content framed as stories, entertainment. i E.g. 1880s: New York World (Pulitzer's paper) ii 1600% readership increase from 1883-86: Why? 1 Political sympathies were Democratic (like most New Yorkers) 2 Business acumen: drop subscription cost to 1 penny 3 Sensationalism: as subject matter and visual style of the paper 4 Splashy, "bawdy" content (crime, scandal, high society) 5 Bold self-promotion, circulation #s on front page 6 Sensational style caters to middle class commuters and working class readers, including many immigrant communities b Informational i Contrast (2) with New York Times, an "informational" profile 1 Defined and promoted itself as "factual" and "responsible" against the style of the NY World. 2 Sought "distinction in the marketplace" 3 Became a "badge of respectability" for affluent and elite readers 4 New York World vs. New York Times: a late 19th century battle between definitions of "high" culture and "low" culture. 1 Schudson's Conclusion? a "The moral war between information and story journalism is a cover for class conflict." b A big socio-cultural analysis COMM 121 c That relationship continued to play out between papers and papers throughout the 20th century. d Partly about circulation as revenue: the value of (1) "more readers" and of (2) "more of a particular kind of reader." 1 Consequences of ad-based newspaper industry: a Emphasis on circulation for the survival of papers as firms. b Circulation is important for subscription revenue, but really for boosting advertising rates. 1 "Cost Per Thousand" (CPM) a E.g. Washington, DC. 1970 i Washington Post (circ. 500,000) i Washington Star (circ. 300,000) ii Washington News (circ. 200,000) iii Which paper will have the highest advertising rates? 1 Post (can charge more for biggest readership) $16,676 for full page 2 Star $12,634 3 News $9,676 4 High circulation = high advertising rate i But! 1 Which paper will have the highest CPM? 2 Post $16,676 divided by 500 = $33.35 3 Star $12,634 divided by 300 = $42.11 4 News $9,676 divided by 200 $48.38 5 Post is the most cost-efficient even though it is also the most expensive. a Business outcome in DC, 1970? i News out of business in 1972 ii Star out of business in 1981 iii Washington, DC becomes a one-newspaper town (Bagdikian, quote sheet) 1 " From historian and political economist Ben Bagdikian, on 1newspaper cities in the early 1980s: Within one year , the American newspaper industry had lost some of its biggest and most established publications. Washington DC, with only one paper, was unique among capitals of major nations: London has eleven dailies, Paris fourteen, Rome eighteen, Tokyo seventeen, and Moscow nine. No city in the United States had as many papers as New York, with only three. Ninetyeight percent of all cities with a daily newspaper had only one." 1 Big economic implications for newspapers: a Ownership shifted from individuals like Pulitzer to firms owning multiple dailies. COMM 121 b (p. 36 and p. 37)Circulation chart c Decline in number of newspapers in the US: broad pattern of "one newspaper towns" d A problem? Why? (think pre-Internet)