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ANT 101 Notes

by: Alysha Sellers

ANT 101 Notes Ant 101

Alysha Sellers

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These notes cover weeks 7 through the end of the semester in Dr. Burkes ANT 101 Class. Including Review questions.
Humankind Emerging
Christina Burrke
Class Notes
Biological, Anthropology
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alysha Sellers on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ant 101 at Northern Arizona University taught by Christina Burrke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Humankind Emerging in Biology/Anthropology at Northern Arizona University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Bilby Research center room 163 (1-3) 3/3 Reading quiz due Sunday Excavations  Understand the stratigraphy  Test Excavations o Small excavation to understand if site will answer questions o Different layers at sites help determine conditions people lived in.  Look at the associations between everything (body & knife)  You don’t pull an artifact out of the ground because then you lose the context Context is Important!  When fossil is out of the ground, we don’t know much about it.  Age can be interpreted based on stuff (soil) around it  Behavior can be interpreted as well based on surrounding environment  Can interpret preservation What is a fossil?  Organisms that have been partially or fully turned to rock  Fossil record/archeological record o All fossils (animals, humans, anything) o Documents the past o All we have of gone individuals o All of the information can help us interpret the individual o Everything around an individual contributes to the context  Becoming a fossil o Perfect conditions required o Lacustrine environment  Edges of slow rivers/lakes/marshes o The water replaces calcium with iron and silica o Fossilization can happen in the cave as long as there is water in the cave o Essentially the only way to get fossilization is through contact with water containing iron and silica o Perfect conditions for an extended period of time o “there are gaps in the fossil record and evolution because of the lack of fossils”  Taxonomy vs Taphonomy o Taxonomy is the classification of organisms o Taphonomy is the law of burials  What restricts organisms from becoming fossils  Transition of an organism from going to the biosphere to the lithosphere (living to rocks)  May obscure context  Animal tooth marks on bone o Carnivores leave jagged edges o Herbivores leave grinding/smooth marks  Chew on bones to help gain necessary nutrients o Rodents leave thin knaw marks  Chew on bone to help keep teeth short  Other marks on bone o Scratches from being tramples or having cut marks on it o Root etching  Plant roots grow in and around carcasses Review questions 1. What is a tooth comb? What primate has this characteristic and what is it used for? a. A tooth comb is a set of teeth at the front of the mouth used to help remove insects and other debris from fur. Lemurs have tooth combs. 2. What is special about the Aye-Aye a. Aye-Aye’s have a special middle finger that they use to get insects from trees 3. What is a canine premolar honing complex? a. This is when the primate has a large upper molar for attracting mates (generally) and there is a gap in the lower teeth that allows for the individual to close their mouth. 4. Explain the difference between a Y-5 molar pattern and a Bilophodont molar pattern. Can you draw a physical representation? a. A Y-5 molar pattern is when the tooth is separated in to an amount of different pieces that make up the complete tooth. Bilophodont molar pattern is when the molar is in distinct 2 sections. 5. What is Stratigraphy? Who is associated with this study? a. Stratigraphy is the study of sedimentary layers and their ages. William Smith is considered the “father of stratigraphy”. 6. What is the law of superposition? a. Geologic principle that in every bit of sedimentary rocks that have not been disturbed each layer is older than the layer above. 7. What is context? Why is it important? a. Context is the information (soil, sedimentary layer, surrounding objects, etc.) that assist the archeologist in understanding what happened to the individual and what kind of life they lived. b. Important because without context, very little can be known about bones/fossils that are found. 8. What is the best environment for fossilization? a. The best environment is one where the bones are near/in a body of still water, otherwise known as lacustrine environment. 9. What is Taphonomy? What are some taphonomic processes? What are the effects of these processes? a. Taphonomy is the law of burials, transition from living organism to rock. b. Some processes include disarticulation, dispersal, accumulation, etc. c. These processes often obscure the context of the fossil or bones. 3/8/2016 Dating Methods  Relative Dating o Fluorine Dating  Degree of absorption by bones when in soil  Limited to 100,000 years BP  Used for Neanderthal skulls/bones as well as ancient animal bones  “How could I test the hypothesis that these come from the same time period?”  Dragutin Gorjanovic-Kramberger  Tells us that they are “equally old o Tephrostratigraphy  Pyroclastic eruption  Tephra=volcanic ash layer  Animal remains found near a tephra layer, remains can be given an approximate age based on the ash  Chronometric Dating 3/10/16: The Oligocene – 36 until 23 mya  Widespread extinctions o Due to rapid cooling of the climate  Rise of the Haplorrhini Arriving in the New World  Migrated from North America to south America o Platyrrhini evolved in North America o Doesn’t necessarily work because there is no solid evidence o Not everything preserves though so it is entirely possible, researchers are still searching  Came from Africa o Evolved in Africa (Egypt) then moved to South America o Potentially floated over on vegetation raft o Land was closer together than it currently is. o It would have take 13 days to arrive in the new world o Most accepted theory. o Evidence of vegetation rafts currently  Platyrrhini and Catarrhini originated independently. o One problem is that they show a shared ancestor The Miocene  We see the continents in the places they are today  Microclimates began to exist  “Golden age of hominoids” o Divergence of Catarrhini o Apes are branching out from old world monkeys  Proconsul o Africa o Similar to gibbons and siamangs o General ancestor to all apes and humans o Nearly complete skeleton found in Kenya o Found in a range of environmental habitats o Diverse diet  Mainly fruit o No tail! o Based on their gripping hands, it is believed they lived in the trees  Apes in Europe: Dryopithecus o Lots of teeth have been found o Approximately chimp size o Slow maturation  Based on enamel rings o Long limbs and grasping hands/feet o Swinging and hanging evidence  Europe: Oreopithecus o Found in Italy in Coal mines o Longer arms and shorter legs o Medium sized, smaller brain o Possible dead end of apes in Europe  Asia: Sivapithecus o Direct ancestor of Orangutan o Very thick enamel due to the types of foods they are eating o Similar skulls to living orangutans o Originally when skulls were found, they were believed to be orangutan skulls  Asia: Gigantopithecus o Found in southeast asua o Largest primate known o 600 lbs. 9ft tall highly sexually dimorphic o possibly lived along side early humans o Lived approximately 9 mya to 100 kya o Go evidence of gross breeding with homoerectus  Africa: Theropithecus oswaldi o Same genus as Gelada baboons o Huge! 176 lbs. o Males had enormous canines o Folivore o Terrifying, mean o Size is probably because of weather Review Questions: 1. List and describe the adaptive reasons for the general primate characteristics. a. General primate characteristics include: frontal orientation of eyes, stereoscopic vision, enclosed eye orbits, and binocular vision. b. Reasons for these characteristics: purpose of frontal orientation is the ability to see more and see better, purpose of stereoscopic vision is better 3-D vision, enclosed eye orbits allow for stronger eyes as they are better protected, binocular vision gives better depth perceotion c. Generalized bone structure to help survive their environment d. Increased brain size to help understand environment e. Tactile pads to help with increased feeling 2. What are the three hypotheses for the evolution of primate characteristics? a. Arboreal Hypothesis b. Visual Adaptation Hypothesis c. Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis (be able to take question 1 and 2 information and relate them to each other. Connect question 1 to question 2). 3. What species is perhaps the ancestor for all primates? Describe its known characteristics. a. Plesiadapiforms i. No enclosed eye orbits ii. No binocular eye orbits iii. Specialized teeth iv. Tiny brain v. Some had nails instead of claws vi. Shape of the molars was the same as modern primates 4. What is Taphonomy? What are some taphonomic processes? What are the effect of these processes? a. Taphonomy is the law of burials, transition from living organism to rock. b. Some processes include disarticulation, dispersal, accumulation, etc. c. These processes often obscure the context of the fossil or bones. d. The transition of organisms from the biosphere to the lithosphere. e. Fossilization, dispersal, and accumulation con occur. 5. Describe the difference between relative dating and chronometric dating. Give and example of each. a. Relative dating: methods that can indicate whether an object is older or younger than another given stratigraphy. Volcanic ash layer, fluorine dating b. Chronometric dating: provides a chronological age estimate of the antiquity of an object in the years before present. Isotopes/radiocarbon Extra Credit: Less than 5-minute video of you replicating a primate behavior, email to Crissina Burke by the Sunday at the end of spring break. Tell which primate you are and which behavior you are mimicking. 6. Compare and contrast the characteristics of Adapoids and Omopoids. Which one leads to Strepsirhini and which one leads to Haplorhini? a. Adapoids: similar to lemurs, flat incisor (possible tooth comb), pronounced sexual dimorphism, diurnal, larger snout. i. Leads to Strepsirhini b. Omopoids: projecting lower incisors, small canines, wide variation in teeth size, shorter skull, larger eye orbits, nocturnal. i. Leads to Haplorhini 7. What is the dental formula for New World Monkeys? What is the Dental formula for Old World Monkeys? a. New World: 2133/2133 b. Old World: 2123/2123 8. What is important about the genus Proconsul? a. The definite generalized ancestor to all great apes and humans. 9. List characteristics of Sivapithecus. Which species in this the ancestor of? a. Thick enamel, skulls similar to orangutans, narrow nasal bones, oval eye orbits, small incisors, led to orangutans 10. Compare and contrast the characteristics of Parapithecids and Propliopithecids. a. Parapithecids: 2133/2133, New world b. Propliopithecids: 2123/2123, Old world c. Rise of haplorrhine 3/24/16 Review Terms:  Hominoid  Hominin/hominid  Quadrupedalism  Bipedalism  Valgus Knee  Transverse Arch  Longitudinal Arch  Thermoregulation  Sagittal crest  Nuchal crest  U-shaped dental arcade  Parabolic dental arcade  Supraorbital torus  Foramen magnum What is a Primate?  Generalized skeletal structure  Increased brain size relative to body size  Stereoscopic vision What is an Ape?  Larger brain relative to body size  Broader, flatter face  Y-5 molar pattern  All apes have canine premolar honing complex Hominoid: term for all apes that are not an obligatory biped Hominin: Any ape that is obligatory bipedal What is a hominin?  Humans and ancestors Bipedalism  Changes that we see that allow us to be bipedal o Skull o Spine o Pelvis o Foot o Leg Changes to the skull  Position of Foramen magnum o Centrally at base of the skull to be in central of gravity o “Big fucking hole” o Directly over our center of gravity Changes to spine  In quadrupeds, spine is “c” shaped, and all vertebra are all the same size  Biped: ‘S’ shaped o Double curves allows center of gravity to be above pelvis o Different size vertebra, smallest at top, largest at bottom Changes to pelvis  Basin shaped and broad  Muscle attachment areas help support and maintain center of gravity  Quadruped is long and flat  Our adaptatons allowed new muscle attachemtns a place to go Changes to legs  Valgus knee: adducted femr or a mermaent knock-kneed-ness  Necessary to move the center of gravity below the hip to save energy while walking  Leg is elongated and muscles support this  Femur is curved to allow for easier movement Changes to the foot  Foot became more rigid  2 arches in foot  Transverse arch pulls the big toe in  Longitudinal arch: takes the impact when you run and move  Changes reduce fatigue and absorb shock Habitual vs Obligate Bipedalism  Being an obligate bipedal is much more efficient  When habitual, you spend a lot of energy shifting weight back and forth Why bipeds?  Freed up hands to carry stuff  Children can be carried with  Seed and nut gathering, allows you to get the stuff at the top, not just at the bottom  Allows you to see more of your surroundings  Thermoregulation o Ability to dissipate heat o Overheating kills your brain  Past 104 degrees’ brain cells don’t work o We have a smaller area taking the sun, more area to get the breeze to cool off o Ability to cool ourselves off allowed us to travel further distances  Long distance walking o More energy efficient Dental changes  Non-honing Chewing Complex o Blunt, no projecting canine o Small canine relative to size of other teeth o No diastema or sectorial premolar o Honing Canine complex, no longer needed because we no longer need it to get a mate  Dental arcade o Chimps have a u-shaped dental arcade, only can chew up and down o Humans have a parabolic dental arcade that allows us to chew in different motions  Let us eat more foods  Disappearance of the sagittal crest and nuchal crest o Gorillas eat tough food, tough food=larger teeth=larger muscles=need for crests o Humans eat softer food so we didn’t need the crests anymore 4/17/2016 Review Question: 1. What morphological changes to the skeletal structure were needed for obligate bipedalism? a. Skull: foramen magnum is positions centrally at the base of the base of the skull allowing for center of gravity. b. Spine: from c-shaped -> s-shaped c. Pelvis: from long and flat -> basin shaped d. Leg: valgus knee developed, necessary for walking with center of gravity e. Foot: Transverse arch and longitudinal arch 4/5/2016 Review Questions: 1. What problems do paleoanthropologists have with determining if Sahelanthropus tchadensis was biped? a. The position of the foramen magnum suggests not bipedal, while other bone features suggest bipedal. 2. What key morphological features leads researchers to argue Orrorin tugenensis was a biped? a. Long neck on femur suggests bipedal, groove along neck suggests bipedalism as well. 3. What key morphological features lead researchers to argue Ardipithecus ramidus was a bipedal in the trees? a. Curve phalanges suggest arboreal living, while location of foramen magnum suggest bipedalism. Terms: Sagittal keel: Occipital torus Supraorbital torus Supraorbital sulcus Orthognathism Oldowan tools Behavioral adaptations Material culture Osteodontokeratic Culture Cranial capacity Sexual dimorphism Lumpers Splitters Acheulian tools Zhoukoudian Island Phenomena Lecture:  Morphology: What defines the genus Homo? o Increase in brain and body size  Very distinctive shift in body and brain size  Cranial capacity sees a large shift o Presence of tools increase, so teeth size decreases o Obligate bipeds and most run, Homo habilis can’t run, Homo erectus can run o Forehead develops because the frontal lob of the brain expands, allows for cognitive ability (communication and interpretation) o First projecting nose is seen in first Homo species o No more sagittal or nuchal crest  Increased cranial capacity over time. o Biggest change in Homo species from past species o Large shift in intelligence  Morphological characteristics o Sagittal keel: found in the genus Homo  A slight point at the back of the skull, similar to the keel of a boat  Could be a remnant of the sagittal crest, can not be tested o Occipital torus: Sharply angled occipital bone  Part of sexual dimorphism today o Orthognathism: opposite of prognathism  Flat face opposed to sloped face o Supraorbital torus: a heavy projecting “brow ridge” o Supraorbital sulcus: “valley” above and behind the eye orbits  Both features may be random, something that just happened.  Behavior: What defines the genus Homo? o Increased reliance on cognitive behavior  Stone tools  Shelter construction  Lean-to’s  Sophistication of stone tools  Potential fire use and control  Not creating fire  Greater social structure  Emergence of the genus Homo o Change in climate o Creation of savanna allows for adaptation while Europe goes through an ice age  From 2-2.5 mya to 1 mya o Increase habitat diversity, brain size is advantageous for those who decide to migrate/move  Hominin time line o Some species go extinct because they are unable to adapt to changing climates and environments o We currently think that  Earliest Homo o Homo habilis is identified as the “handy man”  First stone tool is found with this species o 2.5-1.8 mya o Relatively small teeth suggest a wider use of tools in comparison to their ancestors o 650 cc Cranial capacity  Tool use? o Oldowan tools are what Homo habilis tools are called o “chopper” tools and “pebble” tools o Tools are for scavenging meat o Ability to access more food with higher protein led to larger brain size  The bigger your brain is, the more food you can find  Was Homo habilis a hunter? o This is the biggest question based on the Oldowan tools  Osteodontokeratic culture o Established by Raymond Dart o This culture made tools out of  Osteo – bone  Donto – teeth  Keratic – horns o Dart observed accumulations of bones in South African caves and concluded they were the result of savage hunters and bloodthirsty killers whose violent tendencies had left their mark in human behavior  Violence exhibited in the World Wars is due to evidence that we may have killed other humans prior to evolution o Bones in these caves exhibited extreme damage that Dart interpreted as hominins cutting and beating animals o Dart suggested that early hominins used bone, teeth and horns  Reconstructing Homo habilis as a hunter o Slamming horns and ones in to animals to hunt  Hunting or gathering o In the 1980’s, Dart’s ideas were challenged o Taphonomy was rediscovered o C.K. Brain suggested/concluded was that the accumulation of bones was not the result of hominins killing each other, but evidence that hominins had been killed by carnivores o Final conclusions:  Early humans were the HUNTED and they scavenged carcasses to gain access to Protein.  Earliest ancestors were likely not hunters and were not that violent  Defining Homo erectus. o There is overlap between habilis and erectus o First species to leave Africa  Means we are technically all descendants of Africa o 1.8 mya – 300 kya (and maybe as late as 30 kya) o In relation to earlier hominins  Smaller face and jaw and teeth  Increase cranial capacity  Increased body size  Slower growth  Fully modern obligate biped – efficient and capable runner, two arches in feet o In order to migrate you have to have a larger brain  Homo erectus Migration o Africa: 1.8 mya o Asia: 1.9 mya o Indonesia: 1.6-1.8 mya o Europe: 1.2 mya o The hand axe is the defining reason for our ability to leave Africa  Variation in Homo erectus body size o Body size changes in both males anf females  33% in males, 37% in femals o Brain volume increases by 33% o Homo erectus average height: 5’10” (more modern height o More access to food  Reduced sexual dimorphism in Homo o Homo erectus has same sexual dimorphism as modern humans o Change in gender roles, more equality o You can’t leave Africa if both males and females can’t travel o Equality in size allowed for more ease in travel and a split up in work  Many faces of Homo erectus o Morphology across the world varies greatly, morphological species can be determined by skulls o All were seen as Homo erectus by some, Other anthropologists saw them as different species.  Are you a Lumper or Splitter? o Lumper/Splitter debate  Lumpers see the large chunk of time and say that the skull differences are variations, that all could breed. They are all the same species.  Splitters believe there are a ton of species across the world, because reproduction can not be observed, it cannot be determined that these variations are the same species. 4/12/2016 This Thursday – 4/14/2016 – 5:00-6:30 SBS Castro, room 237 Getting in to Grad School Old Lecture:  Java man- Homo erectus o Discovered near the Solo River, Java, Indonesia by Eugene Dubois o Upright walking man  Turkana boy- Homo erectus o 80% complete o adolescent male o 12-14 years old o 1.6 mya o relatively short arms and legs o 900 cc cranial capacity  Homo erectus in western Eurasia o Republic of Georgia, Europe o 4 skulls found and stone tools o 650 cc cranial capacity  Homo erectus behavior o Acheulian hand ax o Use of fire o They may have had speech! Maybe not well developed, but still present o Decreased sexual dimorphism may have led to shift in social structure, also led to an increase in monogamy  Use of fire? o Zhoukoudian, China  Burned stone tools, eggshells, plus a skull fossil o Fire causes food to be softer and easier to chew o Increases the length of your day o Defense from predators  Homo floresiensis o Discovered in Liang Bua Cave o 12-18000 years before 1950 o “Hobbit” o 3’6” 55lbs o Indonesia o No distinct chin o Some argue that Homo erectus got lost  Theories on Homo floresiensis o “Island Phenomena”  Fills the space in which it lives (think gold fish)  When a species becomes smaller because their success depends on them not overusing the resources  Also find Pygmy Elephants on Flores Island, where the Homo floresiensis are found  This would suggest a Homo erectus or homo habilis left Africa earlier, and got on the Island when the sea level was lower. o Maybe descended from Australopithecine that migrated out of Africa o Maybe had dwarfism o Local mythology includes “little people” Review Questions: 1. What are some hypotheses for the emergence of obligate bipedalism? a. Allowed hands to be used for tools, carrying children, etc. b. Visual surveillance c. Thermal regulation d. Allows for brain to expand because hot blood drains from brain 2. What was Raymond Dart’s hypothesis about early human hunting behaviors? Explain it in detail. Who re-evaluated these findings and what was their conclusion? a. Raymond Dart hypothesized that early humans were extremely violent hunters and suggested that early hominins used bones teeth and horns to hunt animals. C.K. Brain re-evaluated these findings and concluded that humans were actually the hunted, but not the hunters. Terms: Rudolf Virchow Thomas Huxley Svante Paabo Dolni Vastonice Lascaux Cave Shanidar Krapina Mousterian Technology Hyoid Bone Cranial Vault Parietal bossing Aurignacian Gravettian Solutrean Magdalenian Venus statuettes Cro-Magnon Pitch Fox P2 gene New Lecture: Late Genus Homo Everything that is DIRECTLY related to US Extra Credit: May 5 , Printed, double spaced, 2 full pages, 1 inch margins Watch: “Quest for Fire” and discuss “How are the behaviors of Neandertals depicted in this movie versus the behavior we know about them now.” Watch: “1 Million years BC” and discuss “reflecting on everything that is WRONG with this movie, what is missing in their day to day lives, etc.”  What defines genus homo? o Morphologies  Increased brain size  Increased body size  Smaller teeth  Obligate bipeds  Forehead  Parabolic dental arcade  Nasal bones  No sagittal or nuchal crest o Behaviors  Increased reliance on cognitive abilities  Increased reliance on tools  Increased sophistication of tools  Potentially shelter construction  Potential fire use, maybe control  Greater social structure  Several species living at the same time o Archaic time (500,000 to 25,000 yBP) o 3 general species  Archaic homo sapiens – homo heidelbergensis  Homo neandertalensis – Neandertals  Anatomically modern homo sapiens  Archaic Homo Sapiens o Kanwe specimen at Broken Hill in Zambia (350,000 to 200,000 yBP) o 1300 cc cranial capacity o Pronounced browridges, with occipital bone reduced in size and gracile o Sometimes referred to as homo heidelbergensis by Splitters o 32 individuals found in a cave near Burgos, Spain (350,000 to 130,000 yBP)  If they were thrown in the ground because of spirituality, it is indicative of speech  Homo Neandertalensis o Many misconceptions o Originally thought that they were human with extreme diseases that caused the bones to be different o Once many skulls were found, it was determined that they were a different species o Portrayed as lesser than humans o The term “Neanderthal” was originally termed as derogatory to where “easily colonized” o Well adapted for the cold  Wide nasal aperature  Midfacial prognathism  Large infraorbital foramina (foramen)  Occipital Bun with a long-low skull (increased muscle around neck to increase warmth)  Large incisors with heavy wear  Short, stocky body size (never much taller than 5’4”)  Neandertals from Shanidar o Northern Iraq o 80,000 to 60,000 yBP o 9 individuals that were buried  presence of flowers among remains o Use of teeth, used to hold hide as the meat and juices were stripped from the hide with a stone tool. o Shanidar 1  Adult male  45,000 yBP  Older, 40-50  Many injuries, missing lower arm and hand  Severe arthritis in spine (skeleton looks like there is extra bone growth “lipping”  Fracture above eye – possibly caused blindness in one eye  Heavy anterior/incisor tooth wear  Evidence suggests he stayed home making cloths while others hunted and brought him food  Neandertal burials o Numerous burials are recognized as Neandertals  Many in flexed fetal positions  Many in pits o Shanidar – Iraq o LaChapelle – France o What burying could mean  Moving body to reduca smell?  Neandertals from Krapina o Excavated in 1899-1895 in Croatia o 130,000 yBP o Several hundred teeth, remains highly fragmentary o 800 fossil remains of Neandertals o Exhibit cannibalism or mortuary de-fleshing (excarnation)  Excarnation may be accomplished  Neandertal Cannibalism o Cut marks on skulls similar ro those found on documented New Guinea cannibals  Krapina suggest cannibalism  Moula-Guercy Cave exhibits cannibalism “Ravenous” 4/14/2016 Lecture  Neandertal Hunting o Almost carnivorous o First real evidence of regular hunting o Mousterian technology o You can identify the isotopes in the bones which show what your diet is primarily made of. o Only vegetation that Neandertals were eating was from the stomach contents of the animals they ate o Neandertals are “direct content hunters”  Direct thrusting spear  Close contact  Get very close to the animal, then thrust the spear directly in to the animal  Neandertal injuries o Neandertals have injuries very similar to those of rodeo riders o Most likely being kicked and hit by the animals they hunt. o Neandertals also had stronger immune systems which allowed them to not get as many infections from their broken bones. o Bigger muscle mass also helped protect the bones from too much damage  What happened to the Neandertals? o According to DNA information, Neandertals and modern humans interbred  Homo sapiens: What are anatomically modern characteristics? o High vertical forehead (frontal bone NOT receding) o Round skull o Brow ridges reduce o Smaller face and teeth o Projecting chin (mental eminence) o Gracile postcranial skeleton  Earliest modern homo sapiens in Africa o 200,000 to 6,000 yBP o Exhibits anatomically modern characteristics o Omo -> 195,000 yBP o Herto -> 160,000 to 154,000 yBP  1450 cc cranial capacity  tall cranium with vertical ridges  Cro-Magnon o Dordogne, France o 30,000 to 25,000 yBP o initially found in France, it was believed that this was the earliest homo sapien o 1600 cc Cranial capacity o Up until 25,000 yBP, “Upper Paleolithic”, when art begins o When modern human behavior begins to emerge. Review Questions: 1. Compare lumper and splitter philosophies. a. Lumper: All early homo species are the same species, there is no difference. The “species” differentiation is just like race in modern humans. b. Splitter: Because we can not actively view the different species reproducing, there is no hard evidence supporting the fact that they are the same species, even if they are from the same genus. 2. What is the name of the site where there is evidence of the first potential control of fire? What are some of the advantages to being able to control fire? a. Zhoukoudian, China b. Being able to use fire allows us to cook meat which reduces the need for as strong of teeth because the food is softer. Fire can also extend the day by giving light after dark as well as give some defense from predators. 3. What are the differences between Oldowan and Acheulean stone tools? Which species are associated with each type of stone tool? a. Oldowan tools were the first tools (at least as far as we have discovered), these tools were made using a flaking method and were primarily used (we believe) for stripping meat from flesh. b. Acheulean tools were the next step from Oldowan tools, also made in a flake style, but the both sides of the Acheulean tools were sharpened and one end was sharpened to a point. “Hand axe”. 4/19/2016 The Upper Paleolithic: Technology, Art, and Behavior  This is when humans began to be behaviorally modern o Rock art, bone sculptures, o Colder climate  Dolni Vistonice o Gravettian is a part of the Upper Paleolithic  After a site dated to 25,000 years ago  A shelter made of mammoth bone  Several structures were found clumped together with central hearths  2,300 fired clay figurines were found (art!!!)  New tools with long blades  Shells were traded in from the Mediterranean that had been worked  CULTURAL REVOLUTION! o Could be “art for art’s sake” or could be “magic suggestion” o Venus Figurines  Found across Europe, exaggerated sexual features  Why??? (Fertility religion)  Cave art o 200+ caves o dates range from 32,000 to 12,000 BP o “Magdalenian”  18,000 to 12,000 BP  Lascaux Cave o Art is in the deepest part of the cave systems Review Questions 1. What do we gain genetically from the Neandertal genome we have in our DNA? Which population has the greatest percentage of Neandertal DNA? a. It is believed that we obtained the ability to fight of certain diseases from the Neandertal DNA, and we obtained between 0- 4% Neandertal DNA. Generally speaking, people of European descent as the greatest percentage of Neandertal DNA, Tuscans in Italy. 2. What are some hypotheses for the creation of Venus figurines? a. Some hypotheses for the creation of the Venus figurines include: fertility ceremonies, spirituality and symbolizing fertility. 3. What was going on during the Upper Paleolithic regarding behavior and thought? a. During the upper Paleolithic humans became behaviorally modern, art, control of fire, clay figurines. The Race Concept  What is race? o Cultural concept?  Primarily cultural! Social, cultural, political. o Biological concept?  Geography, environmental, evolutionary o People tend to think that what we think about people with different skin colors is based in biology. (It’s not)  Why are we talking about race in this class? o Race matters. Almost every indicator of well-being shows troubling disparities by race. o Being “color-blind” is racist! It is ignoring struggles different races have gone through. o There is disparity in relation to skin color. o Life chances is different depending on skin color.  Anthropology is… o Holistic! o Comparative! o We have to understand every culture and their view points o Relativistic  It is important to back off, everyone has the potential to be racist and prejudice  What is race biologically? o A race is a locally or geographically isolated species or sub- species o Different from each other on a genetic level. o There is NO biological race! o Different races are different species. Therefor, does not exist.  History of the race concept o Carolus Linnaeus  Defined homo sapiens with five different sub-species  Defined different races based on journals and gossip basically o Evaluating race skeletally  Johann Friedrich Blumenbach  Father of physical anthropology and craniology  Wanted to be able to identify races based on cranial aspects  Established 5 races using skull shape, which he believed was static and unchanging  Samuel George Morton  Polygenism (all human races came from the a different ancestral lineage)  Set out to prove that whites were naturally superior  Measured cranial capacity  Pierre Paul Broca  Founder of French anthropology  Craniometry  Attempted to quantify worth based on measurements of the cranium  Argued that Caucasians scored higher than other peoples  Commented that: o Men > Women o Famous men > mediocre men o Superior races (Caucasian) > Inferior (Other races)  All of this gave us research that proved that we (as Europeans) should be able to try to change people. Gave a foundation for Hitler and other such problems. o “The Mismeasure of Man”  Stephen Jay Gould suggests that Morton unintentially measured the cranial capacity based on his biases  Also suggested that Morton chose smaller skulls on purpose o Franz Boas  Father of American Anthropology  First to challenge all previous information  “How is it possible for skull shape to be static?”  Wanted to see if skull shape stays the same from one generation to the next.  Looked at the heads of foreign born parents in comparison to their adult American born offspring  Suggested that skull shape is influenced by environmental factors. IT IS NOT STATIC!  If skull shape can change because of environmental factors, so can skin color. o Richard Lewontin  American geneticist  Tested race concept focused on blood groups  Discovered  Significally more variation between individuals in the same “race” than there is between “races”  No genetic marker for intelligence ability or other environmental traits. Not linked to skin color.  Facts about race: o Not a scientifically valid biological concept, but is socially constructed  Huge variation in traits between humans with any two humans differing by about 3 million DNA variants  Largest variation is within a local breeding population o Race is culturally constructed. o Racism is built in our parents generation. o Significally more complex than any one aspect. 4/21/2016 Race:  So race isn’t biologically valid… o Race is culturally constructed. o Different cultures have different definitions of what constitutes a person’s “race”.  Ancestry and ethnicity are not synonymous with race. What do these terms actually mean?  Ancestry: Where your lineage and genes evolved  Ethnicity: o Fluidity of race in Brazil – over 500+ races  “White, light, light mulatto, mulatto, dark, black, dark, brunet”  So, if race is arbitrary, why do people look different? o Cultural or behavioral: clothing, fire, shelter, marriage, kinship, division of labor, grandparent investment, etc. (technolical adaptaion). o Physiological: shivering, elevated Basal Metabolic Rate, sweating, tanning, etc. (acclimation) at individual level, can be reversed. o Developmental or Ontogenetic: adaptainion during growth or development- at individual level, permanent but not inherited. o Genetic: adaptation due to natural selection; changes in body siza/ limb proportions  Climate adaptations o UV Radiation o Heat o Cold o High Altitude o Homoeothermic  All mammals  Maintain a constant body temperature – despite variation in environmental temperature  Temp. can only by between 95 and 104 degrees  Adaptation and skin color o Cline= gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next o Skin color is caused by melanin pigment  More melanin you have, the more protection from UV radiation you have, the darker your skin is.  CAN be genetically permanent  An individual who’s ancestry is from locations with higher UV radiation  Skin color gradations o Higher UV radiation near the equator  Rickets and skin color o Humans need enough UV radiation to synthesize vitamin D, required for calcium absorption o Insufficient Vitamin D can cause rickets o Rigidity of the bones is not sufficient, which causes rickets o White is the mutation. o Lower UV radiation environment required a lighter skin. o Skin tone hasn’t had to change because of technology. o People theorize that skin tone will be consistent across the entire human population. Skin color may no longer be an adaptation to environment, but will balance out over time.  Heat stress and thermoregulation o Immediate adaptations:  Vasodilation  Expansion of blood vessel’s diameters to move more blood  Sweating  Evaporation of water on surface to cool body  Evolved with general loss of body hair  Heat stress and body shape o There are two generalized rules  Bergmann’s rule: mass  Animal size is heat-related  Animal size increases in mass as you move in latitude to colder climates o Body mass increases as you move to colder climates.  Heat adapted mammals will have smaller bodies in warmer climates.  Allen’s rule  Heat adapted animals will have longer limbs to maximize heat dissipation, while cold-adapted animals will have shorter limbs to maximize heat conservation.  Cold stress and thermoregulation o Need to adapt to cold stress near the poles of the earth, altitudes higher than 10,000 feet, extreme climatic fluctuations  Hypothermia: when body temperature falls below normal core temperature (98.6). Excessively cold air or immersion in cold water can cause hypothermia. o Ways to conserve heat.  Vasoconstriction  Constriction of blood vessels. Turns off heat from limbs first. Shuts off everything that is nonessential to your existence.  Shivering  To produce heat, burning calories to produce heat  High altitudes: access to oxygen o Hypoxia  When body tissues do not receive adequate oxygen to function  Low levels of oxygen in blood o Results of altitude sickness  Headache  Nausea  Loss of appetite  Fatigue  Breathlessness o Functional Adaptations at Higher Elevation  Develop greater lung volume  Ability to use and transport oxygen more efficiently o Tibet: higher incidence of alleles for hemoglobin that has greater oxygen saturation o Peruvian Andes: Great lung capacity with more barrel-shaped lungs and shorter stature due to growth retardation Review Questions: 1. What are habitual bipedalism and obligate bipedalism? a. Habitual bipedalism is a form of bipedalism that indicates that the organism has the ability to walk bipedal, however they are not skeletally formed to walk bipedal. b. Obligate bipeds walk upright due to their skeletal structure. 2. What evidence convinced scientists that Neandertals had language, and how does this alter the hypothesis that Neandertals and human interbred? a. The evidence that convinced scientists that Neandertals had language is the complexity of their tools and culture that would have required linguistic communication in order to share the how to of the product. The other influence is the presence of the FOXP2 gene in the genome of Neandertals, which is the gene that allows humans to speak. 3. List characteristics of Ardipithecus ramidus. Why do some researchers think this species was bipedal in the trees? a. Curved phalanges but central foramen magnum indicate bipedal in trees. b. Reduced canine size c. Small brain d. S-shaped spine e. Opposable toe f. Long arms g. Basin shaped pelvis 4. What is a cline? a. Gradation in skin tone from one population to the next is an example. b. Small changes from one population to the next 5. Define Bergman’s and Allen’s rules. a. Bergman’s rule: larger body mass occurs as organisms get further from the equator in to colder regions. b. Allen’s rule: longer limbs occur in warmer regions, shorter limbs occur in colder regions. 4/26/2016 Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology Terms Bioarchaeology Biological profile Demography Trepanation Osteology Burial properties Grave goods Ascribed status Achieved status Paleodemography Mortality profile Paleopathology Harris lines Porotic hyperostosis Cribra orbitosis Enamel hypoplasia Growth arrest features Osteoarthritis Biomechanics Caries/cavities Stable isotopes Site: Cahokia Site: Stillwater Marsh Forensic Anthropology Odontology Antemortem Perimortem Postmortem Suture closure Dental eruption Bone fusion Epiphyseal fusion Auricular surface Pubic arch Greater sciatic notch Review Questions: 1. Why is there variation in human skin color? What does the differences in human skin colors have to do with folate? And is race a biologically valid concept? a. There is variation in skin tone because as different groups of humans adapted to their environment, their skin needed more or less pigment based on the amount of UV radiation they experienced. Folate Race is not a biologically valid concept. 2. What is the relationship of skin color and human evolution, especially regarding migrations out of Africa? a. Humans originally all had darker skin because living in Africa, they needed the protection. Lighter skin tone was an anomaly and those with lighter skin could not survive in the high levels of UV radiation, and therefor as they migrated out of Africa to locations with less UV radiation, they did not need the darker skin tone to survive. Bioarchaeology is ancient Forensic Anthropology is in the last 50 years  Useful terms: o Osteology – study of bones making up a skeleton o Odontology – study of dentition o Antemortem – before time of death  Ex. Breaks that happened when they were young o Perimortem – at or near time of death  Stuff that happened around death (can identify cause of death by identifying bone remodeling). o Postmortem – after death  After the fact injuries  Questions to consider: o Are the remains bone? o Are the remains human? o Is it modern human remains? o Do they represent a single individual or the commingled remains of several individuals? o When did death occur? o How old was the individual? o What was the individual’s sex? o What was the individual’s ancestry? o What was the individual’s stature, body weight?  Remember: Human osteology o Identify the transition from a common ape ancestor to an early human ancestor to a modern human in regards to morphology o Bones and teeth are able to provide information about the health and disease of a population in the past or present o Use if skeletal research improves our understanding or prehistoric human populations in terms of structural anatomy, biological/geograohic affinity, and cultural practices  How old was the individual? o Forensic anthropologists estimate chronological age – may or may not be the same as biological age o Aging from birth to young adult can be accomplished with precision based on bone fusion, tooth eruption, etc. (plus or minus two years) o Aging of adults (>21 years) is accomplished within broader time intervals (5-10 years) using various degenerative processes, including tooth crown wear, etc.  Determining age o First you can look at the skull and at the fusion of the sutures  More obvious sutures indicates younger individual o Also look at dental eruption o Epiphyseal fusion  Shaft of the bone is growing and fusing  Over the course of life, the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis o Auricular surface  When you get in to the higher age this is easier  Based on the pelvis  The place where 2 bones articulate  The shape/mountainous appearance of the surface can indicate age  20’s and 30’s (smoothers surface)  40’s and 50’s (more “mountainous” appearance)  Not very specific, but it is an indicator o Pubic Symphysis  The point where pubic bones fuse  Mostly immovable, but it does stretch o Ribs  Your ribs articulate with your thoracic in the back  Slightly moving joint  As you breath, the end of the rib wears away (the tip closest to your sternum)  Actually goes from convex to concave as you age  What is the individual’s sex? o Generally, males are 10% larger than females o Males generally have larger muscles and generally more pronounced origin/insertion sites for more muscles o Females are more neotenic than males  A female skull looks more like a fetus, smoother skull with less projections o Only females give birth so pelvis is constructed to accommodate that event o Stresses associated with birthing process leave some telltale signs 4/28/2016  Determining Sex: the pubic arch o Females have wider hips in general, with a more 90-degree pubic arch o Males have narrower hips, with a 60-degree pubic arch  Determining sex: the sciatic notch o If your thumb fills it, it is male o If there is still room to move your thumb, it is female  Determining sex: Pelvis o A larger opening indicates female  Determining sex: Skull o Robust or gracile? o Extreme or slight supraorbital ridge? o Pronounced muscle attachments, or no? o Square chin or round chin? o Large canines or no?  Determining Ancestry: Skull o Shape of the nasal opening o Width of eye orbits o Reliable within some degree o Slant of eye orbits o Nasal sill o Chin  What was the individual’s stature? o Measuring bones and looking at muscle attachments show  What is Bioarchaeology? o Bioarchaeology encompasses culturally how modern Homosapiens lived o Can identify things like disease and trama o Jane: Jamestown  What can Bioarchaeology tell us? o Demography (age, sex) o Disease and trauma o Nutrition and diet o Workload and occupational stress o Able to understand how everyone lived o Cultural practices involving our biology  Burial Populations o Comprised of multiple individuals o Restricted in time and space o We can do radiocarbon dating on these sites because they still are bone o Useful for reconstructing past societies and lifestyles  Paleodemography o We can see the range of ages in a cemetery o If it is a younger high number, what happened? Malnourished? Drought? o If it is older, was it natural causes like old age? o Wide range, disease?  Paleopathology o The study of ancient patterns of disease and disorders o Ex. You can tell is they had an iron deficiency  Porous in nature o Growth arrest features  Skeletal markers that lead to individuals not reaching normal height and development  You can see this in the bones, and you can see if it started when they were younger then changed o Enamel hypoplasia  Sickness or malnutrition causes tooth rings in adults who suffered it as children  Inconsiderate Treatment of others o Bones that didn’t heal correctly or didn’t heal all the way o You can see if they were struck with something  Workload stressors o If you are constantly doing a certain movement, there is evidence of that in their bones o Bone reacts differently to muscles in different places  Domestication and your biology… o What happens to our body when we transitions from hunter/gathering to agriculture?  Consequences of Agriculture o Sedentism and village life  Creation of villages to care for and protect fields  We don’t need to move as much  Closer quarters, more diseases o Population growth  Combinations of less mobility and increased food storage and use  Reduced birth spacing, increased fertility, overabundance of nutrients allows for more births o Wealth = better food o Increased workload  Lower ratio of energy acquired vs. energy expended  Reduced physical activity for some therefore decreased one strength and mass  We eat fewer species, so we have to take vitamins o Reduction in dietary diversity o The food…  Soft foods  Malocclusions and dental crowding  High sugar content  Missing nutrients  Increased intake of processed carbohydrates  Lower protein intake o Hunter-gathers vs. Agriculturalists  Long cranial vault vs. short skull  Large robust mandible vs. small gracile mandible  Larger teeth vs small teeth  Few malocclusions vs many occlusions  Much tooth wear vs little tooth wear  Low evidence of infections vs. high evidence  Normal growth vs reduced growth  Cahokia o Largest Eastern North American fortified civic and ceremonial center o Dated to AD 1000 to AD 1350 o ~20,000-30,000 people living there o Violence and warfare  53 women, age 18-25  Mass burial of 41 individuals potentially thrown in to a hole alive  Burial 4 males, headless and handless  Skeletons tell us more 5/3/2016  You are what you eat: Bones reflect diet o Stable isotopes: carbon  Bone collagen stores isotopes o You see different ratios based on what you eat. (Combination of nitrogen and Carbon)  Stillwater Marsh, NV o A location where partially sedentary people lived o There are a lot of plants and fish around the Marsh, a lot of animals around o “Stillwater Site” has a couple dozen bodies buried  We look at the age and gender, can look at death circumstances  Evidence of iron deficiency in 7%  33% had broken bones  66% had growth arrest features  All of these suggest a fluctuating food supply  Dental:  Not many cavities, but teeth are word down  Bioarchaeology (TA) o Field School  MUST DO  Excavation and all the associated tasks  Laying units, excavation, multiple types of mapping, lab experiences, forms, and specialized skills  People skill/do you like archaeology?  This is when you find out if you actually enjoy archaeology  Anthropology majors, Archaeology emphasis, Junior year  Specifically for Anthropology majors Review Questions 1. What can Bioarchaeology tell researchers about the past? a. Bioarchaeology can tell researchers a lot about the past, including how a group of people lived, what they ate, what their lifestyle was like, etc. 2. What can one deduce from dental remains that have caries (cavities)? a. If dental remains have caries, it is evident that their diets were higher in sugars and carbohydrates. 3. What happens to the skeleton after the agricultural revolution? a. After the agricultural revolution, there is a higher level of C6 carbon in remains which indicates a higher intake of corn. The teeth of the skeleton also change. Another thing that is seen in skeletal remains is a lessening in certain muscle connections and an increase in others, as well as a change in bone diseases caused by dietary insufficiencies. Forensic Anthropology  Forensic anthropology and Bioarchaeology start in the same way, but they vary as they get further  Forensic anthropology is only one field that focuses primarily on bone and the skeleton, soft tissue is removed because it gets in the way. o Identifies everything based on bone  If a body is found with soft tissue, it will be primarily handled by a forensic scientist, if cause of death and identity can be found through soft tissue, then the case will stop at the forensic scientist. 5/5/2016 Forensic Anthropology  Read “Death’s Acre” Review Questions: 1. Explain some methods that anthropologists use to identify the age of individuals? a. Suturing of the skull, dental eruption, bone fusion 2. What are some primary skeletal features differentiating male and female individuals? a. Pubic symphysis, brow ridge, sexually dimorphic traits 3. Why is it paramount to always consider the whole “suite” of characteristics when identifying sex, age, and ancestry versus only consulting one method? a. It is important to consider all of the ch


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