Tuesday 09/27/16 Lecture Notes
Tuesday 09/27/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
PSYC 1301 Seept 27,,20166 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Did you watch the political debate last night? • Be sure when you are doing your research credit on SONA that you are participating in studies that give you credit. • The next exam is next Thursday 10/06/16 Class Notes: • Effects of Hypnosis o When under hypnosis we recall more information, but it is not always more accurate o Hypermnesia § Supposed enhancement of memory for past events through hypnotic suggestion § Hypnosis does not significantly enhance memory or improve the accuracy of memories § Enhancing memories hypnotically can lead to distortion and inaccuracies § Hypnosis can greatly increase confidence in memories that are actually incorrect § False memories can be created when hypnosis is used to aid recall o Age regression § In age regression it is supposed that hypnosis can allow you to re- experience an earlier stage of your life § Not supported by research • Explaining Hypnosis o The State View: Hypnosis Involves a Special State § Hypnosis is a unique state of consciousness, distinctly different from normal waking consciousness § Hilgard’s neodissociation theory of hypnosis: consciousness is split into two simultaneous streams of mental activity during hypnosis o The Non-State View: § Social-cognitive view of hypnosis: Subjects are • Responding to the social demands of the hypnosis situation • Acting the way they think good hypnotic subjects are supposed to act • Conforming to the expectations of the hypnotist, their won expectations, and situational cues o The Imaginative Suggestibility View: Imagination § Emphasized individual differences in imaginative suggestibility § Degree to which a person is able to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it were real • Limits and Applications of Hypnosis o Limits to behaviors influenced by hypnosis PSYC 1301 Seept 27,,20116 Lecture Notes § People cannot be hypnotized against their will § Hypnosis cannot make people perform actions contrary to personal morals and values § Hypnosis cannot make people stronger than their physical capabilities or bestow new talents § Hypnosis does not improve memory. Only amount of information reported, both right and wrong o Benefits of hypnosis § Hypnosis can enhance physical skills or athletic abilities by increasing self confidence and concentration § Hypnosis can aid in modifying problematic behaviors, especially when used with structured treatment programs • Meditation o Meditation § Involves any one of a number of sustained concentration techniques that focus attention and heighten awareness § Can be practiced as secular technique o Goal of all meditation forms § Controlling or training attention o General categories § Focus attention techniques § Open monitoring techniques • Scientific Studies of Meditation Effects o Carefully controlled studies have found that meditation can § Improve concentration, perceptual discrimination, and attention § Increase working memory in American Marines during basic training § Improve emotional control and well-being § Reduce stress and minimize its physical effects o Studying the well trained mind § Neuroscientist and psychologist Richard Davidson confers with Buddhist monk Matthieu Ricard during an EEG study that monitored brain waves during different meditative practices • Psychoactive Drugs (the professor tries his best to avoid this section) o Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that can alter arousal, mood, thinking, sensation, and perception o Broad categories of psychoactive drugs: § Depressants: Drugs that depress, or inhibit, brain activity § Opiates: Drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and that relieve pain and produce euphoria § Stimulants: Drugs that stimulate, or excite, brain activity § Psychedelics: Drugs that distort sensory perceptions • Problems with Misuse o Addiction § Condition in which a person feels psychologically and physically compelled to take a specific drug PSYC 1301 Septt27,,20016 Lecture Notes o Common effects of addictive drugs § Development of drug tolerance § Withdrawal symptoms § Substance abuse § Change in reward circuitry • The Addicted Brain: Diminishing Rewards o Common effects of addictive drugs § Intoxicating effects of all addictive drugs are produced by rapidly increasing dopamine levels in the brain’s reward system § As the brain adjusts to the effects of repeated drug use, long-term changes occur in the brain’s reward circuitry § Number of dopamine receptors is indicated by orange and yellow in the scans to the right § Substance abuse sharply reduces the number of dopamine receptors in the brain’s reward system • The Depressants o Depressants § Depress or inhibit central nervous system activity § Produce drowsiness, sedation, or sleep § Relive anxiety and lower inhibitions § Produce addictive effects (increased sedative effects when combined) o Kinds § Alcohol § Barbiturates § Inhalants § Tranquilizers • Alcohol and Inhalants o Alcohol § Produces a mild euphoria, talkativeness, and feelings of good humor and friendliness § Lessens inhibitions by depressing brain centers responsible for judgment and self-control § Rebound hyperexcitability in the brain caused by withdrawal § 17 million Americans are either dependent upon alcohol or have serious alcohol problems o Inhalants § Are chemical substances inhaled to produce an alteration unconsciousness • Paint solvents, spray paint, gasoline, and aerosol sprays § Act as central nervous system depressants PSYC 1301 Seept 27,,20166 Lecture Notes § Dangers • Suffocation • Toxic to the liver and other organs • Chronic abuse leads to neurological and brain damage • Stimulants o Stimulant drugs increase brain activity, while the psychedelic drugs create perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking o Kinds § Caffeine § Nicotine § Amphetamines § Cocaine o Caffeine § Promotes wakefulness, mental alertness, vigilance, and faster thought process § Stimulates dopamine in brain’s prefrontal cortex § Blocks adenosine receptors in brain, blocking urge to sleep § Can produce anxiety, restlessness, and increased heart rate § Can disrupt normal sleep patterns § Contributes to sleep disorders, NREM parasomnias, sleepwalking o Nicotine § Increases neural activity in many brain areas • Including the frontal lobes, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala § Increases mental alertness and reduces fatigue or drowsiness § Withdrawal symptoms • Jumpiness, irritability, tremors, headaches • Drowsiness, “brain fog,” light-headedness Next Chapter: Chapter 5: Learning • Definition o Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience OR o How nurture changes us – with a little help from some biological predispositions o Learning is more flexible in comparison to the genetically-programmed behaviors of Chinooks, for example • What is Learning? o Learning refers to a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of experience o Conditioning is the process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses; there are three kinds § Classical conditioning § Operant conditioning PSYC 1301 Septt27,,20166 Lecture Notes § Observational learning • Learning as adaptation o At one end of nature vs nurture spectrum o Learning is essential to adaptation. Without our ability to learn, the species would not survive o Learning theorists drove psychology to have a more scientific methodological approach • Associative Learning: classical and operant o Learning to associate a response with a consequence • Classical Conditioning o Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson • Pavlov’s Experiments o Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone neutral stimulus) does not. o During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR) • Classical Conditioning o UCS – unconditioned stimulus § Biologically significant stimulus that produces automatic response o UCR – unconditioned response § Automatic response to a UCS that occurs without learning o CS – conditioned stimulus § Initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning o CR – conditioned response § Learned response o Use the textbook definition for these four terms (see Exam 2 notes/study guide for definitions) o By virtue of Cs-UCS pairing, the CS comes to elicit the CR, a response closely related, but not identical, to the UR • Acquisition o Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place § In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus § The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second • Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery in Pavlov’s Laboratory o This demonstration involved a dog that had already been conditioned to salivate (the CR) to just the sight of the meat powder (the CS) PSYC 1301 Sept 27,,2016 Lecture Notes • Stimulus Generalization o Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS ins called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (DS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped. • Stimulus Discrimination o Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus • From Pavlov to Watson: The Founding of Behaviorism o John B. Watson § Founded new approach called behaviorism § Advocated scientific study of objectively observed behavior § Believed all human behavior is result of conditioning and learning § Conducted controversial “Case of Little Albert”
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