Thursday 09/29/16 Lecture Notes
Thursday 09/29/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
PSYC 1301 Sept 29, 2016 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Deadline to receive 1 free SONA credit is approaching, be sure to have at least 3 • No quiz this weekend Class Notes: • Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life o Acquisition of fears; Little Albert § Watson & Reyner (1920) sought to disprove the Freudian view of phobia, reflecting deep-seated unconscious conflict § They recruited an infant, Albert, and paired a white rat (CS) with a loud clanging metal noise (UCS) o Was this an Ethical study? § Mixed response to whether or not it was ethical, most popular opinion is that it was unethical • Biological Predispositions o Biology and survival appear to help us learn certain things • Evolutionary Aspects of Classical Conditioning: Biological Predisposition to Learn o John Garcia demonstrated in lab rats a classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that developed when the rat became ill after eating the food. § This violates standard conditioning model o Conditioned taste aversions demonstrated the importance of natural behavior patterns influenced by evolution o One factor that helps explain Garcia’s results is biological preparedness • Biological Predispositions o Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not. o Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea § E.g. see image about ER and nausea • Biological Influences on PSYC 1301 Sept 29, 2016 Lecture Notes Learning o Preparedness regarding phobias suggest that we’re evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others § Monkeys are predisposed to become afraid of things such as toy snakes and alligators, but not toy flowers or rabbits § About half of dog phobias have never had direct negative experience with a dog § Classical conditioning does not account for all phobias o Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement o Conditioned taste aversion – classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reaction to the taste of food § Requires only one trial § CS-UCS delay can be 6-8 hours § Very specific with little stimulus generalization § Challenges the concept of equipotentiality • E.g. don’t develop CTAs to sounds § Belongingness suggests that certain stimuli are more likely to go with certain responses • Classical Conditioning in Cotemporary Advertising o Taking a cue from John Watson, classical conditioning is widely used in today’s commercials and print ads, pairing emotion-evoking images with otherwise neutral stimuli, like soft drinks or new cars • Applications of Classical Conditioning 1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use 2. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response 3. Smokers should avoid bars while quitting smoking 4. Psychopaths are indifferent to threat signals • Radical Behaviorism and Cognitive Psychology o Skinner was a radical behaviorist: said thinking, emotion, and observable behavior are all dictated by operant and classical conditioning; viewed cognitive psychology as a pseudoscience o Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theorists focus on how the organism interprets the stimulus before generating a response § They contend that behavior is not automatic or inflexible, rather, classical and operant conditioned responses usually depend on thinking • Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning o Reliable and unreliable signals need processing § Conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts presentations of unconditioned stimulus § Active processing of information: animals assess the predictive value of stimuli PSYC 1301 Sept 29, 2016 Lecture Notes • Operant Conditioning o Or instrumental conditioning – acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome or consequence of those behaviors o The organism gets something out of the response or “operates” on its environment § E.g. using biscuits as a treat, a trainer teaches a dog to sit o With classical conditioning, the environment controls us o With operant (or instrumental) conditioning, we control the environment • Fact or Falsehood o False – Humans are the only animals that can learn behaviors merely by observing others perform them o False – Negative reinforcement is another term for punishment o False – Psychologists agree that punishment, regardless of its form, has little effect on behavior o False – Animals learn only when rewards are given o False – Animals can learn to make virtually any response if consistently rewarded for it o True – research indicates that televised violence leads to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the programs • Skinner’s Experiments o Skinner’s experiments extend Thorndike’s thinking, especially his law of effect. This law states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again • Operant Chamber o Using Thorndike’s law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed the Operant chamber, or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning • Law of Effect o E.L. Thorndike (1898) studied cats in puzzle boxes, which led to the law of effect: § If a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened • According to Thorndike and others, learning involves an association between a stimulus and response (S-R), with the reward stamping in this connection • Shaping o Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations § A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes • Types of Reinforcers o Reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold Ways to Increase Behavior Operant Conditioning Description Possible Examples PSYC 1301 Sept 29, 2016 Lecture Notes Term Positive Add a desirable stimulus Getting a hug; receiving a Reinforcement paycheck Negative Remove and aversive Fastening seatbelt to turn of reinforcement stimulus beeping • Negative Reinforcement o Works to increase behavior but does the by removing an unwanted stimulus o Think of negative sign (-) REMOVING unwanted stimulus o Example: Beeping noise from car – buckle seatbelt – noise is negative reinforcement Comparing Positive and Negative Reinforcement Process Operant Consequence Effect on Behavior Positive Studying to make Make dean’s list Increase studying Reinforcement dean’s list in the future Negative Studying to avoid Avoid loss of Increase studying reinforcement losing academic academic in the future scholarship scholarship • Primary and Secondary Reinforcers 1. Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink 2. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer • Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers 1. Immediate Reinforcer: a reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press 2. Delayed Reinforcer: a reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week 3. We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delay reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require consistent study
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