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ANT 379 notes weeks 1-5

by: Alysha Sellers

ANT 379 notes weeks 1-5 ANT 379

Alysha Sellers

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Notes covering weeks 1 through 5
Biological Anthropology
Dr. Chrissina Burke
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biological Anthropology

Popular in Biology/Anthropology

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alysha Sellers on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 379 at Northern Arizona University taught by Dr. Chrissina Burke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at Northern Arizona University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
ANT 379 – Biological 9/1/2016  Article review & presentation are the same week o December 1, 2016  Precis are on different weeks o  Writing Formally o Passive voice is NOT used in technical writing  Meat & potatoes of the whole situation o Don’t use THAT o No use of ‘I’ o Read everything out loud, it helps you know when the sentences are not quite correct. o Use the Oxford comma (comma before and, and a list of things) o Do not use contractions o Write numbers one through ten, everything about ten, use 11,12,13, etc. o Don’t use ridiculous words from a thesaurus  Don’t use big words just to use big words o However never goes at the beginning of a sentence o Limit direct quoting  In a two-page paper, limit to one direct quote. o EDIT – EDIT – EDIT  American Antiquity Style Guide: Articles References Cited Burke, Chrissina C. 2013 Neotaphonomic Analysis of the Feeding Behaviors….. o On the Writing help page on Bblearn 9/6/2016  What is biological anthropology and what is science? o Human variation  Evaluate differences among human populations in:  Blood groups o One of the first ways we were able to identify based on geography o One of the most powerful way to understand geographically o Foundation ANT 379 – Biological o Cultural anthropologists collected in the early 1900’s  Teeth o Evolutionarily conservative o Evolution doesn’t act upon teeth as quickly as the other aspects o Being born without wisdom teeth is showing a possible evolution  Fingerprints  Body and skeletal attributes o Human variation o Geographic differences (race)  mtDNA  Y chromosomes  And many others, to measure relationships and make inferences on population theory history  Epigenetics o The “tweak” on the DNA strand and how we influence it in our daily lives. o Human adaptability  Assess the manner in which human populations adapt to a variety of environmental stressors, including:  Extremes in heat and cold  High altitude  Ultraviolet radiation  Diseases o How we are evolving in reaction to a specific disease in the population/ uses of antibiotics and our reaction to it  Our culture can dictate what we can adapt to  Culturally we can do whatever we want, but biologically we are still set for a certain geological location o Non-human primate behavior  Field shared by anthropology, ethology, and comparative psychology.  Study sociology, group dynamics, territoriality, kinship, dietary behavior, and communication of living primates  We can use primate archaeology and studying primates in order to understand how our ancestors may have behaved  Understand why specific species did not “progress” from where they are at o Primate Paleontology ANT 379 – Biological  Study issues of primate origins (ca. 65 mya) and all subsequent primate fossils up to hominin origins  Use fossils to study adaptability, evolutionary trends, and relationships.  Not as many fossils due to the small size of primates in comparison to the dinosaurs o Paleoanthropology  Study of hominin fossils from Upper Paleolithic back to hominin origins (6-8 million years ago)  Evaluate techonomic contexts, derive relative or absolute date for fossils, reconstruct phylogenies and make inferences on the behavior of earlier hominins. o Bioarchaeology  Human skeletal biology with a focus on population samples rather than individuals  Make inferences on the behavior and diseases of extinct populations  Evaluate internal and external relationships of skeletal samples  Understanding how violence is related to climate change o Forensic Anthropology  Primary emphasis on identification of human skeletal remains in forensic context  Trained to assess age, sex, ethnicity, time since death, trauma, stature, and other skeletal anomalies.  There is evidence that you can find “American defined” races in skeletons  What is science? o A tool o A method o A way of knowing o Evidence based 9/13/16 History of Evolutionary Thought  Evolutionary thought as a paradigm o What is a paradigm?  A basis of assumptions assumed to be correct o What is the main paradigm of anthropology and biology?  Evolutionary theory is the paradigm in biology and anthropology  In anthropology (every aspect) evolutionary theory is behind almost everything. ANT 379 – Biological  What limited the development of the theory of evolution? o Lack of knowledge on the age of the earth o Qbiggest problems that people had with Darwin was because his theory of natural selection was a gradual process, which they didn’t agree with because we didn’t know the age of the earth o The concept of fixity of species  The idea that species do not change o Lack of scientific method  Bacon created the first scientific methodology o Notion of separate creation of animals and humans  Greek Philosophers o Ancient Greeks  First written efforts to understand the natural world  Having some discussion/written record of where humans fit in the natural world o The “Atomists”  Trying to understand how the natural world has been created  Seeing man as a part of nature o Plato  Man is separate from nature  Man does not have to follow natural laws o Aristotle  Gradual change  Attributed this as how things come about  Spontaneous generation  How things grow out of other things  All things serve as a function for something else o A lot of these views are due to trying to understand the difference between man and animals  The great chain of being o Aristotle further identified an order to all living forms.  Trying to order everything around humans  In order for humans to adapt to an environment, they need to structure things in to categories (good/bad, right/wrong, hot/cold, etc.) o In ordering all life on earth, they really structured everything in a way that there is no mobility  There is a ladder, nothing can move up or down the later, everything is fixed. o Becomes different due to Christianity  God is at the top, bugs and plats and such are at the bottom  Intelligence level ANT 379 – Biological  Problem  Becomes a way to fix people in their “lot in life”  Becomes the paradigm of research before evolution  The “Age of Faith” o Evtreme limitations in science o Greek is the language of science, Latin is the language of the church o Scholarly work is done through the church  People are only really getting information through the church o Nothing has changed o A.d. 500  The Renaissance o 14 century and 17 century o education reform  rediscovery of anchient greek texts  people begin to question mans place on earth o Scientific method developed by Francis Bacon o Galileo and Copernicus  Earth the center of the universe  Age of the Earth o Church is pissed. o A lot of people are starting to question the information the church is giving o Therefore, earth considered 6,013 years old (by many people, but not everyone)  Actually 4.65 billion years old o Looked at the generations in the bible in order to try to figure it out (that is why they have the 6,000 years old)  The adge th discthery o 15 – 17 century o European exploration and colonization of the world  encounter  new peoples  new animals  new plants  more culture shock  descriptions  caused new comparisons with European populations  naturalists are generally on the journeys  ethnocentrism is running rampant  leads to the belief that the people they see are different species (couldn’t possibly be the same species, because they weren’t doing things “right”) ANT 379 – Biological  The age of enlightenment o 17 -18 century o age of reason  freedom of religion  so many different spiritual ways of life  scientific advancement  rebellious only within the context of the church  questioning authority  all the differences are important to view outside of the church  still within the Great chain of being  Foundations for Darwin o Late 1700’s o Questioning past conclusions  Literal interpretation of the bible  A lot more free-thinking religions  Bible isn’t t  he end all be all  Rejection of the 6,000 year age  How can things be created, but then still change? o New scientific disciplines  Geology  Paleontology  Taxonomy  Evolutionary biology  Pre-Darwin o Taxonomy o Classifying what we are seeing o John Ray (1628-1705  Power of God could be understood by studying creation  Natural theology  Saw the adaptation of organisms to their environment as evidence  Same species can interbreed and produce viable off-spring  No extinctions  Fossils seen are from the great flood  Debate between Bill Nye and Ken Ham o Linnaeus  Systema Natura  “father of taxonomy”  fixity of nature (species) = species remained unchanged since the time of creation  wanted to be more scientific that John Ray ANT 379 – Biological o wanted to not add his own bias o wanted to be able to define aspects/measure aspects  color  thickness  etc.  Taxonomy o Linnaeus is the one who created the modern scale o Classification of organisms according to evolutionary relationships  7 basic categories  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species  Binomial nomenclature  Homo sapiens (always sapiens)  Pre-Darwin: Evolutionary Biology o Comte de Buffon  Greatest contribution  Species must have improved or degenerated after creation  75,000 years old  considered humans evolved from ape-like ancestors  one of the first to suggest that it is possible that things can change o John-Baptiste de Lamarck  Earth is immensely old  Agreed that humans evolved from ape-like ancestors  How did organisms change over time?  No real way to understand how this happened.  Understood that the environment had some stake in the fact that animals and humans adapted  Organisms must want to change o Will to change allows organisms to gain or lose traits o All of these changes are heritable  Sets us up to believe that evolution/change leads to perfection o Georges Cuvier ANT 379 – Biological  Established extinction as a FACT  Comparative methods  Compared osteology of different animals  Opposed evolution  Believed that everything was created, but some things were gone because of floods and droughts  Catastrophism  Still trying to fit it within the bible o Thomas Malthus  Economist/demographer  Wanted to show that poor people will eventually die out  There must be competition  “Carrying capacity” of a society  people who have access to reproduce and access food supply etc.  Pre-Darwin: Geology o Understanding deep time and old earth o James Hutton  “theory of the earth”  “Father of Modern Geology”  gradualism  erosional events  Uniformitarianism  Geological processes happening today also happened in the past o Charles Lyell  Tests the Uniformitarian Principle  Layers of the earth (stratigraphy)  Seems simplistic, but is actually quite profound  Can SHOW that the process of geological change is very slow  Can now suggest that the earth is older than we previously thought  Charles Darwin o 1831 hired as a naturalist on the HMS Beagle  record fauna and flora around the world  collected specimens and took detailed notes o influenced by reading o Able to document a lot  Beak sizes of species of birds  Things have to be able to NOT survive o Darwin pondered… ANT 379 – Biological  Why do animals differ from region to region and habitat to habitat?  How do differences arise? o Return to England  Brings everything back  Writes On the Origin of the Species  Most of it is about the domestication of animals  If you have a trait that is better in an environment, it will get passed on to off-spring  Evolutions is… o FACT!  It is verifiable reality that life has changed over the course of time o THEORY  Because there is a set of hypotheses that explain how change has occurred 9/20/2016 Précis:  Keep transitions between paragraphs: “Next… discusses…”  Get rid of “that”, “maybe” and other filler words  Pay attention to sentence length Discussion:  Stay focused on fact, not emotion.  Analyzing the impact of evolution and biology on anthropology Evolution and Darwin’s Research  Recap – prevalent ideas in Darwin’s time o Great Chain of Being, Fixity of Species, Variations in the age of the earth, Linnaeus classification, Lamarck and the environment influencing evolution of species.  Darwin’s Voyage o Europe to South America to Australia to Africa to Europe  Hundreds of samples o Finches  Looking at finches that were classified the same, but were slightly different and weren’t’ interbreeding  In each different area, there is a difference. o Importance of carrying capacities o Studied his samples in England: 1836-1839 o Understood how people can artificially make choices in a species, applied that to naturally selected characteristics o Conclusion…  Natural selection!  Didn’t say anything for 20 years ANT 379 – Biological  Alfred Russel Wallace o Naturalist working in South America and Southeast Asia o Expanded on some of Darwin’s works  Darwin and Wallace o “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life.” o People did not like Darwin.  Massive rejection of theories, massive arguments of whether it was tested correctly o There will always be organisms who over-reproduce because they know some will not survive o Variation has to exist in a population in order to allow populations to fill all niches o Basically, Darwin says that there is a common ancestor to all living species o Calls natural selection, “Descent with Modification”  Decides it must be gradual  Darwin’s reputation after his death o A lot of people still did not like his ideas o Saltationists: biologists who believed that evolution and environmental changes were instantaneous and sudden  Synthesis! o “Evolution: The modern synthesis.”  Julian Huxley, 1942  Random mutation and recombination assures genetic variation within populations  Populations evolve by changes in gene frequencies due to: o Genetic drift o Gene flow o Natural selection  Phenotypic chance is gradual  Reproductive isolation leads to gradual diversification of species o Within genetic drift, diversification species is possible  What is Evolution exactly? o Evolution = change in allele frequency over time  Unit is the population itself (doesn’t act on individuals) o Evidence?  If all existing organisms descended with modification from ancestors that lived during the past, all life forms should have fundamental similarities: ANT 379 – Biological  All living things consist mainly of carbon nitrogen hydrogen and oxygen  Their chromosomes consist of DNA  All cells synthesize proteins in essentially the same way.  Homologous structures  Common ancestor!  Similar structures that have some sort of different function, but have a similar development.  Intermediate types  The Decent of Man o Darwin 1871 o Forced on Darwin o Considers whether humans are descended from some pre- existing world just like every other species. o Also considers the manner of human development o More discusses races then how man evolved o “Sexual selection”  What side is Darwin on? o Thinks he is “Liberal”  Challenged liberalism  If differences required at what point all men are equal  Under the impression that some humans have adapted further than others  Supports Liberalism  Supports progress and change  Competition o Romantic Appeal  Natural theology o Challenges Church  Herbert Spencer o Predates and overlaps with Darwin  The development of hypothesis  A theory of population, deduced from the general law of animal fertility 1852  Wants to sterilize people  Natural selection idea, proposed that humans who invested less in reproduction and more in education were better off o Social Darwinism o


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