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by: Esraa Hagag

psychology psychology 103

Esraa Hagag
Northampton Community College

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About this Document

these will cover chapter 4
introduction to psychology
Dr Thomas C. Helm, D.M/CC, LPC
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esraa Hagag on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psychology 103 at Northampton Community College taught by Dr Thomas C. Helm, D.M/CC, LPC in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Northampton Community College.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 4 Gender and sexuality Gender development: Gender: the roles and characteristics that a culture expects from those defined as male and female How are we alike? How do we differ?  We have 46 chromosomes, 45 are shared by men and women  Women: has twice the risk of developing depression and anxiety  Men: more likely has childhood diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, color blindness or hyperactive disorder Gender and aggression:  Aggression: any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally.  Men generally admit to more aggression, more extreme physical violence  Relational aggression: an act of aggression intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing  Women are slightly more likely than en to commit them Gender and social power:  Men tend to be more directive, they offer opinions  Women tend to be more democratic, express support Gender and social connections:  Males tend to be independent.  Females tend to be more interdependent The nature of gender: our biological sex  Our gender is a product of the interplay among our biological makeup, our developmental experiences, and our current situations  Biology doesn’t dictate gender, but it can influence it in two ways: 1. Genetically: males and females have different sex chromosomes 2. Physiologically: males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones Prenatal sexual development: 1. X chromosome:  The sex chromosome found in both men and women.  Females have two X chromosomes; males have one.  An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. 2. Y chromosome:  The sex chromosome found only in males  When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child 3. Testosterone:  The most important male sex hormone  Both male and female have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus  and the development of the male characteristic during puberty Adolescent sexual development Puberty:  The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing  At about age 11 in girls, and age 13 in boys  Primary sex characteristics:  The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible  Secondary sex characteristics:  Non-reproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair  Spermarche: first ejaculation, happens for male for the first time during sleep by about age 14  Menarche: the first menstrual period, happen in females within a year of age 12  Early menarche:  more likely following stresses related to father absence, sexual abuse, insecure attachment, or a history of a mother’s smoking during pregnancy Variation on sexual development: Intersex: possessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes The nurture of gender: Our culture and experience:  Gender role: a set of social expectation that guide behaviors for males or females  Role: a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave How do we learn to be male or female?  Gender identity: our sense of being male or female  Social learning theory: the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished  Gender typing: the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role  Androgyny: displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics  They are more adaptable  They show greater flexibility in behavior and career choices  They tend to be more resilient and self-accepting  Experience less depression  Transgender: an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex  Transsexual  Heterosexual: opposite birth sex  Homosexual: same birth sex  Bisexual: both sexes  Asexual: having no sexual attraction to others  Gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation Human Sexuality The physiology of sex  The desires and pleasures of sex are nature’s clever way of enabling our species survival  Sex is a part of our life Hormones and sexual behavior  Male hormone: testosterone  Female hormone: estrogens (such as estradiol): it secreted in greater amounts by females than by males  During prenatal period they direct our development as males or females  During puberty a sex surge ushers us into adolescence  After puberty and well into the late adult years, sex hormones help activate sexual behavior  As sex hormones rise and fall, they influence our sexual characteristics and behaviors The sexual response cycle: The four stages of sexual responding described by masters and Johnson- 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution  Refractory period: a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm Sexual Dysfunctions A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning  Erectile disorder: inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis  Premature ejaculation: sexual climax that occurs before the man or his partner wishes  Female orgasmic disorder: distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm Paraphilia Sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons Necrophilia: sexual attraction to corpses Paraphilic disorder (pedophilia): sexual arousal toward children Exhibitionism: derive pleasure from exposing themselves sexually to others without consent It classifies as disorder if:  A person experiences distress from his or her unusual sexual interest  It entails harm or risk of harm to others Sexually transmitted infections: 1. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome):  A life threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  It depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections 2. HPV (human papilloma virus) The psychology of sex  External stimuli  Imagined stimuli  Teen pregnancy  What environmental factors contribute to teen pregnancy? 1. Minimal communication about birth control 2. Passion overwhelming self-control 3. Alcohol use 4. Mass media (hypersexualized)  What are the characteristics of teens who delay having sex?  High intelligence  Religious engagement  Father presence  Participation in service learning programs Sexually orientation Why do we differ? Sexual orientation: An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex, the other sex or both sexes Environment and sexual orientation: Studied did not find any evidence proves that environment affect your sexual orientation Biology and sexual orientation  Same sex attraction in another species  Gay straight brain differences  One hypothalamic cell cluster is small in women and gay men than in straight men  Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the smell of sex related hormones  The brain is a sex organ  Genetic influences  Family studies--- male homosexuality is often transmitted through the mother’s side  Twin studies—homosexuality more likely to be shared by identical twins than by fraternal twins  Fruit fly studies---sexual attraction can be genetically manipulated  Prenatal influences  Hormonal activity: altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals  Maternal immune system responses  The fraternal birth order (the older brother): men who have older brother are somewhat more likely to be gay  Gay straight trait differences  Spatial abilities  Fingerprint ridge counts  Auditory system development  Handedness  Relative finger lengths  Occupational preferences  Sleep length  Birth weight and size  Walking style  Physical aggression An evolutionary explanation of human sexuality Evolutionary psychology: the study of how our behavior and mind have changed in adaptive ways over time due to natural selection Gender differences in sexuality Natural selection and mating preferences Natural selection: the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Critique the evolutionary perspective Reflections on gender, sexuality, and nature-nurture interaction


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