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pos 160 Week 6 Notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

pos 160 Week 6 Notes POS160

Alexandra Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Int'l Law, Institutions, and Human Rights
Global Politics
Dr. Reed M. Wood
Class Notes
Politics, global, pos, 160, study, notes, Lecture Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POS160 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Reed M. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Global Politics in Political Science at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
POS160 INTERNATION LAW & INSTITUTIONS  AnarchicSystem  Int’lsystemlacksauthority  Nooverarching gov’tbodies(Realism)  NOTchaotic  Existingrulesandordering principles  Adensebodyofint’llawsexist  “governs”behavior ofstates  Sovereignty,trade,humanrights,war)  Governsnon-state actorstoo(rebels,MNCs,individuals)  Piracy,terrorism,financialinteractions,human rights  Limitofint’llaw isoften enforcement  1.Int’llawsexist  3.Enforcementisdifficult  Governing Mundane Activities  Manyint’llaws/agreementsgovern daytodayinteractions:  Mail  Telecommunications  Aviation  Shipping  For themostpartNOTcontroversial  Otherissues(human rights,migration,war,environment)aremuchtrickier andface much greatercontestation  HistoryofInt’lLaw  Modern rootestracedto17 century:  TreatyofWestphalia:sovereignty,legalorder  HugoGrotius“LawsofWar”; Law ofFree Sea”;  Lawsofresorttowar(“just”war)  Lawson conductofwar (treatmentofciviliansandprisoners)  LawsoftheSea(maritimelaws)  Seas=int’lterritory  Allnationsmayuseitwithouthindrance orharassment  Firstlawsagainstpiracy  Source ofLaws(2sources)  CustomaryLaw:  Normsofbehavior stateshave traditionallygenerallyacceptedaslaws  Ex:sovereignty,lawsofwar, sovereign immunity,genocide,piracy,slavery  Somecustomarylawscodifiedintotreatiesor otherformalagreements  Customary“LawsofWar”GenevaConvention  Normsof“freeseas”UN Convention on Law ofSeas  TreatyLaws:  When astate signsatreaty,theyvoluntarybindthemselvestotheagreement  Includesagreements,conventions,protocols,covenants  Ex:(NPT)nukes,Outer Space Treaty,4 GenevaConvention  In US,when senate ratifiesan int’ltreaty,itbecomesthe “Law oftheLand”–itis aUS law.  Institutions  Avarietyofinstitutionssupport andpromote int’llaw:  UN (SecurityCouncil)  Human rightscouncil,commission on int’ltrade,Int’lLabor Organization,Int’lLaw Commissions  Int’lCouncilofJustice (ICJ)  Int’lCriminalCourt(ICC)  Int’lWar CrimesTribunal:  Rwanda  Former Yugoslavia  The UnitedNations  GeneralAssembly  Main deliberating bodyoftheUN  Likeaweak legislature  One country,one vote  IncludesallUN members  Resolutionson importantint’lissues  2/3vote requiredfor passage  Notlegallybinding –publicdeclaration ofopinion  Dutiesinclude globalopinion,forumfor dialogue anddebate,controloverbudget  Secretariat  ExecutivebranchofUN  CarriesouttasksfromSecurityCouncil& GA  Dutiesinclude peacekeeping,mediating disputes,gathering information  SecretaryGeneral:  Chiefadministrator ofUN  UN spokesperson  AppointedbyGA–recommendedbySecurityCouncil  5yr.renewable term  SecurityCouncil  Realpower in UN  5permanentmemberswithveto  US,UK,FR,China,Russia  Major powersandvictorsofWW2  10rotating members,2yr.terms.Eachhasavote butnovetopower  Possibleexpansion ofpermanentmembers  India,Brazil,andJapan  Dutiesare relatestomaintaining globalpeace andsecurity  Powerinclude establishmentof peacekeeping missions,sanctions,andapprovalof militaryactions  Issuesresolutions –recommendationsandactionsonbehalfofmembers  SCresolutions=legallybinding  Mayauthorize troops,underUN ornationalcommand,issue sanctions,and execute other punitive measures  Ex:  419:1977,Arms Embargo S.Africa  693:1991,Peacekeeping inElSalvador  757:1992, SanctionsonYugoslavia  InternationalCourts  Int’lCourt ofJustice (ICJ)  AbodyoftheUN  Isthelegalentitythat issuesdecisionsanddisputedbetween states  Allmemberssubjecttocourt jurisdiction  Rulingsandlegallybinding  Littleenforcement  Powerfulstatesdon’toften abide byruling  Ex:US v Nicaragua(1984)  US “foundin breachofobligationsunder customaryint’llaw”for mining Nicaraguan harbors  US ignoredruling (nothinghappened)  Int’lCriminalCourt(ICC)  The globalcourt for prosecuting individualswhoviolate int’llaw  Independentcourt(notabodyofUN)  Est.2002w/Rome Statute  124 memberstates  Intendedtohaveuniversaljurisdiction  Jurisdiction istricky,dependson location ofcrime,andwhobringssuit  Dealsmostlywith crimesagainsthumanity,genocide,warcrimes,etc.  Ex:  Prosecuting warcriminals  Todate manyinvestigations,BUT FEWconvictions  Enforcement  Int’llegalframework exists  Lawsexist(treaty& customary)  Institutionscreate,refine,andinterpret laws  Organizationsmonitor compliance  Mechanismsexistto“accuse”violators  BUT few violatorsare punished  *Major limitation on enforcementin int’llawsislack ofpowerfulenforcement  Law isPoliticsandPower  Politicsandpowerhinder robustenforcement:  Political disputes:  Issuesofsovereignty  Whoshouldenforcelaws?  How shouldenforcementbe carriedout?  During theColdWartherewaslittleenforcement b/cUS andUSSRcouldnotagree  Powerfulstatescan often simplyresistcompliance  PermanentUNSCmemberscan veto actionsdirectedatthemselvesor allies  US supportstrialsfor war crimesyetresisteduniversaljurisdiction of(ICC)(esp. US citizens)  USignored(ICJ)during requiredcompensation toNicaragua(1984)  Lawshave turnedinto“tools”for major powers  PointofInt’lLaw  Int’llawsare basicrulesof thegame:  Instrumentsofcommunication  Signalsexpectations  Normsofbehavior  Common language  Establishesanetwork ofrightsandobligations  Promotes/diminisheslegitimacy  Mobilizesupport oropposition on action  “naming andshaming”  Providesjustification for other punitive policies(sanctions,foreign aidrestrictions,travel restrictions,propertyseizure)  Successful?  Despite limitationsint’llaw isn’tatotalfailure  Since endofColdWar,int’l laws(&enforcement) haveexpanded  Normsofaccusation andprosecution have begun todevelop  Creationofnew andmorepowerfulinstitutionswith greaterjurisdiction (esp.ICC)  Somesuccessin prosecuting worstcrimes:  TrialsofSerbandRwandan WarCrimes  TrailsofInt’lWarsuspects  Evidence ofInt’llaw effecting domesticlaw  US SupremeCourt justiceshave citedint’llaw in opinions(torture & capitalpunishment) POS160 HUMAN RIGHTS  Human Rights:  Rightsthat areinherenttoallperson justbyvirtue ofthembeing human.  Applyregardlessofnationality,place ofresidence,sex,ethnicorigin,religion,language etc.  Interrelated,interdependent,andindivisible  Mutuallyreinforcing  UniversalDeclaration ofHuman Rights(1948)  Universalrightsfor allpersons  AdoptedbyUN GeneralAssembly  “Aspirational”  “non-binding”  NOTE:similartoBillof RightsandDeclaration ofRightsofman andCitizen.  In principle  Theserightsare universal  Applytoeveryone,everywhere,toallpeopleregardless  Protectedbyint’llaw  Gov’tobligedtorespectrights  Abusesareverycommon  Universality  Asconceivedin int’llaw,human rightsareuniversal  Formsthecornerstone ofint’lHRlaw  ObligesallstatestorespectHRlaws  Universalrightsentailbothrightsandobligations:  Individualshave rightsunderint’llaw  Lawsoutline state obligationstorespect/protect/promote HR  QuestionsofUniversality  Notallcountriesagreeon whatconstitutescore “rights”  Votingin multiple partyelections  Peacefulprotest  Minimumstandardofliving  Provisionsofhealthcare  Clean water/environment  Privateproperty  Perspectiveson rightsvariesindividually byculture,politicalideology,andbystate  Twoviews:  1) some groupsplace individuallibertiesovergroup rights(Libertarian)  2)SocialJustice:Rights=limiton whatgov’tcan dotocitizens  TypesofRights  PhysicalIntegrityRights:(universal)  Freedomfromarbitrarydeath,torture,& imprisonmentfor politicalbeliefs  Codifiedin int’llaws:  Convention ofTorture(1984)  GenocideConvention (1951)  Hague Convention (18991907)  GenevaConvention (1949)  CivilandPolitical Rights:  Negative rights:freedoms“from”something  SimilartoBillofRights  CodifiedunderInternationalCovenanton Civil& PoliticalRights(1966)  SocialandEconomicRights:  Positive rights:rights“to”something  Reflectsgov’tobligationtoprovide tocitizens  Codifiedin InternationalCovenanton Social,Economic,& PoliticalRights(1966)  Who’sRights?  These rightscan be atodds  Basisofpoliticaldisputesoveruniversalityofrightsduring theColdWar  Civilandpoliticalrights(US,Europe)  Economic,social& culturalrights(Communist& Asia)  Political disagreementover order:  West:Politicalrightssocial/economicrights  East& Socialist:Political freedomimpossible withoutsocialandeconomicrights  Measuring Rights  PhysicalIntegrity:  PoliticalTerrorScale  Civil& Political Rights:  FreedomHouse  Abuse  Variesacrosscountriesover time  Factorsassociateswith increasedHRabuse:  Low levelsofdevelopment  Autocracy/unstable democracy  War/terrorism  PastabuseofHR  Development& HR  Wealthier countiesare more likelytorespectHR  LessdevelopedstateslackabilitytoprotectHR:  Poortraining ofpolice/military  Lackofprofessionalism  Povertycreatesgrievancesdissentrepression  PoliticalInstitutions& HR  Establisheddemocraciesarelesslikelytoviolate HR  Democraticnormspreventabuse  Voterscan punishleader inviolation  Checksandbalanceslimitabuse  Democraciesare notimmune:  UK during N.Ireland“trouble”; US in response to9/11  Weak/new democraciesarelikelytoabuse  (instability& dissent repression)  InternationalAction  StatesmayacttoprotectHRin other states  Action mostlikelywhen:  Abuse=extreme:massviolations,warcrimes,genocide  Confrontedwith domesticpressureto“dosomething”  Servesalarger geopolitical/strategicagenda  Limitations  Sovereignty&politicaldisputesmaylimitresponses  Tension existbetween int’llaw andsovereignty  Intervention isin directviolation ofsovereignty  When doviolationsofonenorm/law justifyviolationsofanother?  Arestates’claimstosovereigntyunderminedbymassabuse?  SometimessovereigntyI trumpedanyway  WithUN approval(ArticleVII)  Particularlywhen violationsjeopardize “Int’lsecurity”  InternationalHRlaws  Int’llaw mayhave beneficialeffects:  Providelegaljustification for foreign intervention  Empower localactorstoadvocate own rights,alltransnationalactiviststocreate pressure on abusers  “Naming & Shaming”:  Mobilizes“court ofworldopinion”  Callsupon persuasive powerofother states  Boomerang:  NGOsin one state activatetransnationallinkagestobring pressure from other stateson their own gov’t  Pressures frommorepowerfulstateactorscan alter state practices


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