History 109, Week 7 Monday Notes
History 109, Week 7 Monday Notes History 109
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 109 at University of South Carolina taught by Neal David Polhemus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Latin American Civilization in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Lecture from Monday 9/26/2016 History 109 African Resistance to Colonial Order Mainpoints 1. Africans resisted in the new world through maroonage 2. Colonial rivalries encouraged the formation of maroons Maroon Societies Due to mass plight and poor conditions, enslaved Africans fled from their plantations, formed settlements, and joined indigenous groups There were a large number of maroon societies in Panama, the Caribbean, and the Andes The societies formed close to plantations so that they could easily raid them for supplies -ammunition, food, lumber for building shelter The word maroons came from the word Cimarron, used for runaway cattle then applied to Africans, has strong connotations with fierceness, wildness Petit Maroonage: masters expected this type of maroonage, it was repetitive, not permanent, slaves ran away with the goal of visiting family and often returned to their original plantations Grand Maroonage: permanent settlements formed of runaway slaves, posed a military and economic threat to the nearby plantations Societies were formed around traditional West African experiences and aimed to recreate life in Africa -structured around family, farming, and religion -government was formed by a monarchy that the Africans viewed as royalty Maroon’s Relationships with Indigenous Peoples Native Americans were reluctant to make relations with the maroons Relations varied from civil to full war between the two groups The relations between the groups was based on outside pressures from colonial groups The Seminoles: group of Native Americans living in modern-day Georgia and Alabama, the name Seminole came from an alteration of the world semiroon -identity of this group is tied to the associated fierceness of the title “semiroon” -most people knew Spanish, had been exposed to Spanish culture -allied with the Spanish as Florida fluctuated between being claimed by Spain, then Britain, then Spain again -black maroons were greeted warmly by the Spanish and communicated with them more often, allowing us to have a paper trail of Seminole life -Catholic Church allowed this group to modify religion -religion was mix of African songs/costumes with Catholic prayers/Rosary Fort Mose Was the product of rivalry between Britain and Spain Spain created a safe haven for maroons in Florida, Fort Mose, gained freedom there This made runaways from British territories go the Spanish territories This was beneficial for the slaves and for Spain -in exchange for freedom, Africans join Spanish military -they were granted their own town and in return, were loyal to and protected Spain A large group (25 slaves) fled from Carolina to Florida -This showed that there was communication between the different plantations 1739 Stono Revolt: a group of slaves from Angola revolted, killed their white masters and fled south -they knew they would be safe in Spanish territory -they knew Portuguese and had been exposed to Catholic religion so they easily assimilated into the Spanish settlements of the south -Fort Mose became a mix of Spanish, black, and Native American people Quilombo Palmares: longest lasting maroon society in Brazil -was not defeated because it was composed of multiple settlements and had a central government, had a traditional African kingship -this strong settlement was the opposite of what Portuguese wanted, tried to defeat many times -modeled society after Angola in the size and structure of it, nicknamed “Little Angola” -religion was a mix of African and Catholic -Quilombo- comes from African word meaning an “initiation camp”, originated in Africa, was a militarized settlement with the goal of defeating the Portuguese -existence of Palmares and Quilombos were a constant threat, they actively fought guerilla style against Europeans Was defeated in 1694 Jamaican Maroons Spain claimed Jamaica until 1655 when British tried to take it over -Spanish waged a 5 year war against Britain -black maroons living on the island were critical to the war, fought for Spain while Spain waited for backup troops which never came -after the war, Spanish left island and the slaves left from the Spaniards created maroons near British plantations -they often raided the plantations, severely hindering their development Planters wanted to settle in areas that were good for growing sugar cane but couldn’t because maroons were too close Raids prevented economy growth 1730s, exodus of planters order of events 1. maroons expand to fertile land 2. frustrated planters are too busy to look over their slaves carefully/planters leave island 3. enslaved Africans join the maroons, increasing population drastically despite multiple military campaigns, the British were unable to defeat the maroons Freedoms a 15 point peace treaty was formed between maroons and the British, 1739 -gave peace, freedom -maroons became autonomous, had their own government -they could hunt and had the right to petition the colonial government under the condition that runaway slaves be returned to their plantations -provided a small market economy of trades between planters and maroons 2 Maroon war, 1795 waged by the British because they feared an uprising similar to the uprising in Haiti against the French had relative peace up until this point war began when 2 maroons were convicted of stealing pigs in Saint James and were sentenced there -this broke the treaty -further disrespected the maroon society by having them flogged publicly in front of other slaves, very offensive -the British then declared martial law, further breaking treaty -maroons attack Saint James 9 month guerilla war, British can’t defeat the maroons -the maroons secure an agreement that none of them would be deported -British broke this agreement and deported 600 maroons to Canada -they petitioned to settle in Sierra Leon, 1800 Present Status the maroon societies struggle to maintain autonomy descendants are semi-independent, very proud of their past, and keep the traditions alive Summary Points 1. African runaway slaves structured their new societies basedon their societies in Africa. 2. Imperial rivalries between Spain and England fosteredthe development of maroon settlements.
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