CDS Notes Speech-Sound Disorders
CDS Notes Speech-Sound Disorders CDS 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Curry on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 101 at Geneva College taught by Dr. Hockenberger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders in Speech and Communications at Geneva College.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
9/27/16 Communication Disorders ➔ Speech Sound Disorders (SSDs) ◆ 4-13% of children with SSDs (higher in males and AAE-CLD) ◆ Multiple errors in articulation ● Possibly unintelligible ◆ Phonological disorders evidences itself during the developmental period for speech-sound acquisition, from birth to 9 years old ➔ Phonological Disorders ◆ An impairment of an individual's sound system resulting in significant problem with speech-sound production that differs from age- and culturally-based expectations. ◆ Arises from an articulation impairment or phonological impairment ● Articulation impairment- inability to articulate certain speech sounds correctly (mild to moderate) ● Phonetic impairment ● Phonological impairment- involves the rules that govern sound patterns in a given language (Be familiar with the disorders of phonetics) ● Phonemic impairment (severe) The too long use of devices used in making speech attainable. ○ Deletion of final ○ Fronting ○ Stopping ○ Cluster reduction ○ Gliding ○ Phonoems change meaning! ➔ Dialectal and Linguistic Diversity ◆ Speech variation - differences in speech that arise from a dialect or a foreign accent. Not a disorder. ◆ Dialect - speech and language variation characteristics of a group of speakers from a particular region of the country ◆ Foreign accent or language-influenced speech in which characteristics form one language are carried to another ➔ Phonemes as Contrasts pg.278 ◆ 40 phonemes in standard American English ◆ Phoneme: speech sound that signals are contrast in meaning between two words ◆ Allophone: the variations of a single phoneme ◆ IPA- international phonetic alphabet ● Kæt ◆ Classification of consonants- all consonants are classified by place, manner and voicing ◆ Place of production: where in the vocal tract a sound is produced ● Bilabial- both lips ● Labiodental: produced with upper teeth and lower lip ● Linguadental:produced with tongue and teeth ● Alveolar: produced with the tongue tip on alveolar ridge ● Palatal: produced in the region of the hard palate ● Velar: produced in the region of the soft palate (velum) ● Glottal: level of the glottis ◆ Manner of production ● How a sound is produced ○ Stops: complete obstruction of the vocal tract ○ Fricatives: Constriction or partial obstruction of the vocal tract the makes a friction-like sound ○ Affricatives: combination of a stop and a fricative ○ Nasals: nasal cavity open ○ Liquids: relatively open vocal tract ○ Glides: gliding movement of the tongue ◆ Voicing ● Weather or not a sound is produced with vocal fold vibration ○ Voiced ○ Voiceless ◆ Pronunciation of American English Vowels ● Vowels are characterized by four articulatory features ● Pg. 281 ○ Tongue height ○ Tongue advancement ○ Roundness ○ Tension ◆ Children’s Acquisition of Consonants ● Twenty-four consonant phonemes are divided into groups based on when they are acquired ○ Early 8: 3 years (/m,b,j,n,w,d,p,h/) ○ Middle 8: 4 years ○ Late 8: 6.5 years ◆ How are Speech Sound Disorders classified? ● Unknown origin ○ Termed functional disorders ○ Include articulatory and phonological difficulties ● Known organic origin ○ Include structural deficit, sensory impairment, or a neurological impairments that results in a motor speech disorder ◆ Unknown Origin- Characteristics ● Speech delay ○ Small phonemic inventory ○ Phoneme collapse (one sound for a bunch of sounds) ○ Persisting errors ○ Reduced intelligibility ● 30% of children with a speech delay also have a significant impairment of either vocabulary and/or grammatical development, placing them at higher risk for social and academic problems ◆ Unknown Origin- Causes and Risk factors ● Unknown causes ● No specific risk factors ● Tendencies ○ Phonological disorders run in families ○ Particularly vulnerable to dyslexia ◆ Known Origin ◆ (could be) Otitis Media, Causes and Risk Factors ● Most common in children under 3 years ● Result from periods temporary hearing loss, occurring when fluids build up in the middle ear for a sustained period ● Caused by: ○ Bacterial infection ○ Viral infection ○ Allergens ● Some people can have chronic middle ear infections and not have any negative consequences (resilience) ◆ Characteristics ● Specific markers ○ Delayed onset of babbling ○ Delayed onset of use of meaningful speech ○ reduced intelligibility ◆ Special Population: Hearing Impairment ● Transient or permanent hearing impairment can limit a child’s exposure to phonology of language ● Severity of disorder reflects severity go hearing loss and extent of interventional period ● Causes: prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal ◆ Cleft Palate ● Congenital malformation of the palate (roof of mouth) 1 in 700 births ● Correctional surgery is usually performed within the first year of life, but prone to phonological problems before and after surgery ● Cause: failure of fusion of palatal structures between 8th and 12th week of gestation ● 400 different syndromes for which left palate is associated ◆ Motor-Speech Disorders ● Apraxia of speech ● Dysarthria ● Neurological component ● We will talk about these later in the semester