PSY 305 Week 1 Notes
PSY 305 Week 1 Notes PSY 305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Biekert on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 305 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Donald Ryujin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Week 1 Notes: Personality Notes from Book: CH1 Approaches: Psychoanalytic people’s unconscious minds are largely responsible for important differences in behavior styles Trait identify where a person might lie along a continuum of various personality characteristics; responsible for most assessment tests Biological point to inherited predispositions and physiological processes to explain individual differences in personality Humanistic identify personal responsibility and feelings of selfacceptance as key causes of differences in personality Behavioral/Social Learning explain consistent behavior patterns as the result of conditioning and expectations CH1 Terms: Construct Validity consists of face validity, congruent validity, discriminant validity, and behavioral validation Face Validity appears to measure what it is supposed to Congruent Validity (Convergent Validity) the extent to which scores from the test correlate with other measures of the same construct Discriminant Validity the extent to which a test score does not correlate with the scores of theoretically unrelated measures Behavioral Validation the extent to which the test scores predict relevant behavior 927 Lecture Notes: Personality: A Brief History I. Timeline Beginning in 1879: Perspectives A. Psychoanalytic (1890s) 1. Came from Freud (hypnosis) 2. Influenced humankind’s perspective on personality B. Behavioral (1890s) 1. Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner, Bandura 2. Classical/Operant Conditioning C. NeoFreudian (1911, 1914) 1. Audler, Jung, Sullivan, Horney, Erikson D. Trait (1920s) 1. Assessments 2. Allport “Personality Traits and their Classifications” a) 1924 first class on subject of personality by Allport 3. Murray, Allport, Eysenck, Big 5 (Costa, McCrae) E. Humanistic (1940s & 1950s) 1. Maslow, Rogers, Chick 2. Social beings that need approval; critical theory in therapy F. Cognitive (1950s) 1. George Kelly, Jean Piaget, Gordon Bower, Noam Chomsky, Elizabeth Loftus, Herbert Simon, Robert Sternberg, Amos Tversky, Daniel Kahneman II. Consequences of History: Limitations of Theorists A. No Theories involving Emotion B. Focus of the Theories/Research 1. Karen Horney a) Styles of social interaction b) Start to develop styles as we age c) Theory died, no males picked it up 2. Rats (Bias Male/Female) a) Even true in hard sciences b) “Confounding data” because of hormones and reproductive cycles C. Cultural Bias 1. Some AsianAmerican people can only handle 1/10 of the dose for Caucasian people 2. Not much evidence on migraines because they mostly affect women 3. STEM Education a) Need for increase in diversity 4. Anthropology: Evolution and Cave Painting a) Until 90s, all drawings considered to be produced by males b) Cooperation vs. Strength in terms of survival of the fittest 5. Dysfunctional Families? a) Single parent homes considered “dysfunctional” (1) Applied mostly to AfricanAmerican families 9/29 Lecture Research Methods I. The Experiment A. Only method to determine causeandeffect B. Basic Idea: 2 or more identical conditions 1. Except for one thing, which accounts for the difference in outcomes C. Caffeine and Memory 1. Decaf wait 20 min read 1 hr 50 item quiz 2. Caf wait 20 min read 1 hr 50 item quiz 3. Better score for caffeine D. Terms 1. Hypothesis: cause/effect statement 2. Independent variable: that which (supposedly) has an effect 3. Dependent variable: that which is affected 4. Control condition: does not contain independent variable 5. Experimental condition: one that contains the independent variable 6. Random assignment (different than random sampling): “flip a coin” to decide who is in which group, not identical, but overall average of characteristics has similar outcome (IQ, reading speed) II. Significance for Personality Research 1. Does not determine cause/effect relationship, merely correlational relationship Trait Theory: Three Basic Assumptions I. Describe Personality vs. Explaining it A. Created assessment, develop personality measures, DESCRIBE: not saying why B. Lots of Assessments C. No Method of Therapy (only approach like this) II. Biological Basis for Traits III. Universal Traits A. Should be some traits that apply to every human being on earth B. Big 5 OCEAN: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism Activity Eysenck’s Personality Inventory 57 Items Academic success is correlated with individuals scoring slightly high on Neuroticism and closer toward the Introversion poles
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