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Chapter 6: Learning and Conditioning

by: Katie Notetaker

Chapter 6: Learning and Conditioning Psy 201

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Psychology (PSYC) > Psy 201 > Chapter 6 Learning and Conditioning
Katie Notetaker

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About this Document

This is what we have covered in class since the last exam until September 27th.
General Psychology
Vanessa Moynahan
Class Notes
Psychology, learning, conditioning
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 201 at University of Mississippi taught by Vanessa Moynahan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Psychology Class Notes 9/20 Chapter 6: Learning and Conditioning  Learning o Relative permanent change in behavior due to experience o 3 different types  non­associative learning­ response to something in the  environment  habituation­ decrease in behavioral response after repeated  exposure to a stimulus  sensitization­ increase in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus   associative learning­ linking two events  Reinforcement­ any event that increases the probability that  a response will occur again  Conditioning­ the process that connects environmental  stimuli to behavior  o Classical conditioning   Tying events together o Operant conditioning   Behavior results in consequences  observational learning­ acquiring behavior after watching another  individual perform that behavior   ABC’s of Behaviorisms o Antecedent­ events that come before a behavior o Behavior­ or response; anything observable and identifiable  o Consequence­ effects that follow a behavior  Conditioning  o Classical Conditioning  Looking at what happens before we respond  Pairing something that doesn’t produce a response with something  that does   Pavlov’s dogs   Conditional Stimulus: neutral signal, no emotional meaning  o Neutral Stimulus: bell  o Conditioned stimulus: bell after conditioning   Unconditional Stimulus: trigger for hardwired emotions  related to survival; reflex o Dog food, meat powdered  Unconditioned Response: reflex o salivation  Pair the CS with the US results in the reflex or respondent  behavior  After, the CS (Antecedent/Trigger) results in the conditioned  response  o Conditioned Response: Salivation; learned response   Ring bell, does nothing  Food causes dog to salivate  Pair the bell with the food and the dog salivates  Then after continued pairing, ringing the bell will cause the  dog to salivate   Principles of classical conditioning  Acquisition­ gradual formation of an association between a  conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus   Higher order conditioning­ conditioned stimulus becomes  strong enough to be used like an unconditioned stimulus o Advertising o Add clapping hands to the bell when feeding dog   Extinction­ removing the connection between the US and the CS (food and the bell) o Removal of reinforcement  o Ring bell but don’t give dog food, if repeated enough  the dog will stop salivating at the bell  Spontaneous Response­ reappearance of a learned  response  o After extinction   Generalization­ responding similarly to similar stimuli  Discrimination­ responding differently to similar stimuli o A parent’s praise tone versus angry tone; still parent’s voice   Classical Conditioning and phobias   Conditioned emotional response   Little Albert Study by Watson   Phobia is an unreasonable fear of an object or situation  o Operant Conditioning   Associating responses with their consequences   Instrumental learning   Edward Throndike: Law of Effect  The probability of a response is altered by the effect it has  Cat in box experiment: o Cats in a box with treat outside­ trial and error o As trials repeated, time to escape decreased o Law of Effect­ behaviors followed by pleasant  consequences increase; unpleasant, decrease   The subject actively operates on the environment to produce an  outcome  Skinner Box/ “Operant Chamber”  B.F. Skinner  Shaping   Reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the  desired behavior   Each step is a successive approximation   Ex. Training dog to turn on light switch or get the paper  2 different ways to shape behavior o reinforcement­ increases the probability of a behavior  primary­unconditioned   ex. food, sex, sleep, water  secondary­ conditioned (token)  ex. money, praise, gold stars, tokens  Schedules of reinforcement   Fixed interval­ certain amount of time  that is going to pass before a behavior is reinforced. Fixed amount of time  o Paycheck, exams  Variable interval­ random amount of  time   Fixed ratio­ rewarded for a behavior  after doing a behavior a certain amount  of times (paid based on work  productivity, rat presses lever 3 times to  get food). Fixed number of responses   Variable ratio­ most effective (highest  rate of responding), there will be an  eventual pay off for a behavior, they  don’t know how many times they have  to perform a behavior so they keep  doing the behavior until they get that  reinforcement. Random number of  responses  o Dating, casinos o Punishment­ decreases the probability of a behavior   Refers to a following response with an aversive consequence   Can either be:  Onset of an unpleasant event   Response cost  Most effective when it is immediate and  predictable   Examples:  Speeding tickets  Giving advice to people who don’t want  it – punish the behavior of them talking  to you by giving them advice they don’t  want  Problem with punishment  Can greatly increase aggression   Physical punishment  aggression,  impulsivity, and antisocial behavior  o spanking o Positive: adding something o Negative: taking away something  o Positive reinforcement: adding something to increase  a behavior that we like  Giving a child candy for doing something good o Positive punishment: adding something to decrease  the behavior  Speeding ticket o Negative Reinforcement: Avoidance learning.  Increase the behavior by removing something  unpleasant   Remove a curfew if the child is good  Increase them being good because they want  to be able to come home whenever they want  to  o Negative Punishment: take something away to  decrease the behavior  Take away a toy or allowance if the kid does  something bad o Taking away phone because you are taking too many  selfies  Negative punishment o Make it rain 20 dollars on a student every time they  talk  Positive reinforcement  o Make a student who texts in class listen to Nickleback on repeat forever  Positive punishment o I let students out early who actively participate in  class  Positive or negative reinforcement   Extinction­ behavior is no longer reinforced  Generalization­ responding to stimuli similar to the reinforced  stimulus  Discrimination­ reinforcement is based on antecedent stimuli   Modeling­ learning by observation o Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment   Children watch someone interact with a Bobo doll  The model would kick the doll, hit it with a mallet, throw it in the air,  or beat it   The children would then perform the same behavior   Increase attraction to guns  Children picked up harmful language  This is compared to children who watched a model be  nonaggressive to the Bobo Doll


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