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TEST NOTES - not for orgo

by: Nida Notetaker

TEST NOTES - not for orgo CHEM 3331

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test notes
Fund of Organic Chemistry I
Ognjen S Miljanic
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nida Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 3331 at University of Houston taught by Ognjen S Miljanic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
BIOL 1361 Homeostasis: Nutrients & Thermoregulation Chapter 33, Section 5 Chapter 32, Section 1 I. Bioenergetics- overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal A. Energy budget of an animal 1. Energy ingestedenergy assimilated (heat is given off) 1. Maintenance- gas exchange, osmoregulation, thermoregulation, anabolism (repair) 2. Growth 3. Locomotion 4. Reproduction- behavior, gamete production, incubation of young II. Challenges and Adaptation A. Challenges 1. Obtain food, o2, water to survive & reproduce B. Constraints 1. Physical laws governing diffusion, heat exchange, and electrical conduction C. Adaptation 1. Characteristics that allow animals to survive better and reproduce more in their env’ III. Homeostasis A. Definition – maintaining a predictable internal env’ 1. Variable is maintained btw upper and lower limit (variable vs time graph> btw absolute max and min) ** B. Conformity vs Regulation [Fig. 32.3] 1. Conformity 1. Animal’s internal env’ changes as external env’ changes 2. Regulation 1. Animal’s internal env’ remains stable even when external env’ fluctuates 3. Partial Regulator 1. Can maintain an internal variable at a fixed amount above or below ambient conditions C. Negative feedback [Fig. 32.4] 1. Mechanism for regulating a variable at a set point 2. Fluctuations in a variable = stimulus BIOL 1361 3. Stimulus detected by a sensor 4. Control center (“integrator”) triggers a response that returns variable to set point IV. Blood glucose 1. Glucose absorbed across intestine into bloodstream 2. Blood glucose enters liver and muscle cells 3. In cells, glucose polymerized to glycogen intestin e bloodstrea m muscl live e r 4. Retrieval of stored glucose for use 5. Hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages between glucose monomers 6. Glucose released from liver cells into bloodstream 7. Other cells can take up glucose from the blood to use for energy V. Thermoregulation- DO NOT USE WARM/COLD BLOODED- heat: kinetic energy of molecules A. Source of body heat 1. Internal metabolism: endotherm 2. External environment: ectotherm 3. Thermogenesis: heat production from internal metabolism 1. Non-shivering thermogenesis a. Mitochondria increase respiration rate, but release chemical energy as heat without making ATP BIOL 1361 2. Shivering thermogenesis a. Opposing muscles contract, generating heat ***ATP synthesis will decrease when thermogenin is present in a mitochondria b/c proton motor force is reduced*** B. Heat exchange with the environment [Fig. 32.6]*** iguana 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation: transfer of heat from sunlight 4. Evaporation C. Regulating heat exchange 1. Behavior 2. Insulation 3. Circulation of body fluids a. Vasodilation b. Vasoconstriction c. Counter-current exchange [Fig. 32.7] 4. Evaporation Reading: Section 32.1 Concept Check Questions: 32.1 Q1 Test Your Understanding: 2, 4, 5 BIOL 1361 blue arrow response /// green arrow stimulus /// second curve second response value of regulated variable vs time BIOL 1361 ** BIOL 1361 200 100 70 ] e o u g d o b BIOL 1361 time green arrow intake of glucose /// down arrowinsulin; glucose uptake /// arrow upglucagon; glycogen breakdown/glucose release (simultaneous) ***** Stimulus Secretory Hormon Target Tissue response Variable organ e response [blood Pancreas Insulin Liver Import glucose [blood glucose] Muscl glucose]v above set e point [blood Pancreas Glucago Liver Breakdown [blood glucose] n Muscl glycogen glucose]^ below set e Release glucose point BIOL 1361


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