Week Two CHEM 1311
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by carolyn martinez on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1311 at University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College taught by Vanessa Garcia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chemistry I Week Two Notes- Chapter II and Nomenclature Dalton’s Atomic Theory- Atoms are the base of matter. 1. Elements composed of atoms 2. Compounds are made of more than one element. Atoms in a chemical reaction cannot be created or destroy, only appear as a different shape Protons +1 Electrons-1 Neutrons (0) Proton mass= neutron mass= 1 Electron mass= 0 Protons and neutrons found I the nucleus while electrons travel around. Every atom has the same numbers of protons and nucleus which causes the element to have a 0 electric charge, neutral. Proton= atomic number Atomic mass= protons+ neutrons Isotopes: an increase or decrease amount of neutrons but same amount of protons. Atomic Weight = Ʃ [(isotope mass) × (fractional natural abundance)] Example: Carbon 12 C - 98.93% in abundance with a mass of 12 amu 13C - 1.07% in abundance with a mass of 13.00335 amu C = (12 amu)(0.9893) + (13.00335 amu)(0.0107) = 12.01 amu • These seven elements occur naturally as diatomic molecules. • Hydrogen – H 2 • Nitrogen – N 2 • Oxygen – O 2 • Fluorine – F 2 • Chlorine – Cl 2 • Bromine – Br 2 • Iodine – I 2 Cat ion: formed when the minimal of one electron is lost An ion: formed when a least one electron is gained. Ionic compounds: non-metal+ metal Chemical compounds are ALWAYS electrically neutral Polyatomic Ions: ions that have more than two atoms NOMACLATURE: Binary Compounds: two distinctive elements Metal+ Non-metal: name the metal first then name the non-metal and replace the suffix to –ide Hydrogen is dissolved in water; it becomes an ACID. Become HYDRO- If the hydrogen bonds with a metal, name the metal and hydride. Ø NON-METALS: Least electronegative+ most electronegative +ide Ø Example: NaH: sodium hydride TRANSITION METALS: Charge of the transition metals is shown with a roman numeral example +2 charge, Cu (III) EXCEPTIONS: Ag Zn +1 +2 Ø Hydrates are compounds with a number of water. When the water leaves the compound from heat the compound becomes anhydrous + compound Compounds of two elements = binary compounds Ø Binary compounds that contain hydrogen + element from either Group VIA or VIIA (with the exception of oxygen) usually form an acid when dissolved in water. Hydro+ non-metal +replace ic +acid Example: HF Hydrofluoric acid Ø Exception: Sulfur + ic+ acid Example: H S2Hydrosulfuric acid Polyatomic Ions: Non-metal compound + non-metal compound= using greek prefixes and ending with -ide Prefix Number *Mono- One Di- Two Tri- Three Tetra- Four Penta- Five Hexa- Six Hepta- Seven Octa Eight Nona- Nine Deca- Ten Roman Numerals: Use them when using transition metals since they have more than one oxidation number. Example: Iron with a +2 charge would be designated as Fe (II) BE SURE TO BALANCE THE EQUATION Example: Fe S 2 3 à iron (III) sulfide Oxygen containing acid= oxyacid HOW TO NAME: root +replace with –ic + acid Example: Iodine has the formula HIO called “iodic acid”. 3 Acid with -1 oxygenà change from –ic to –ous Example: HNO is 3nitric acid”, and HNO is ni2rous acid Acid with -2 oxygenà keep the hypo- +root +ous HClO 2s “chlorous acid”, so HClO is known as hypochlorous acid Acid with +1 oxygen à per- +root of oxyacid Example: HBrO 4 Perbromic acid OXYANIONS Oxyanion: metal + non-metal + -ate Example: The compound Na CO is c2lle3 sodium carbonate Oxyanion -1 oxyg-1 metal+ -2n-metal + replace –ite Example: ClO 2 and SO 3re known as “chlorite” and “sulfite” Oxyanion: -2 oxygen à metal + hypo- non-metal –ite Example: Pb(IO) is4known as “lead (IV) hypoiodite Oxyanion +1 oxygen à metal + per- non-metal + -ate Example: Fe(BrO ) 4 2known as “iron (II) perbromate
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