HIST 221, Week 5 Class 2
HIST 221, Week 5 Class 2 History 221
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in History of the United States to 1877
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 221 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ian W. Beamish in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
The Constitution “An Empire of Liberty” - After constitution is passed, July 1778 o Organized parades in celebration Social class forgot its claims Testified of the wide spread popularity of the constitution Americans are in a good mood Optimistic about the future of the country Hoped to be defined as a country, not by tyranny or power Democracy and liberty Many Americans had many reasons to be optimistic Had more territory by itself Had more territory than the nations of France, Great Britain and Spain combined Empire of liberty The vision for most of the people who were involved in shaping the constitution was specific o Jefferson wanted Free of slavery and incredible wealthy Land made up of family farms o Reference ancient Greeks and romans Had to tangle with reality o Movement to end slavery and ship all people of African descent back to Africa - Not an easy path A Government at War - To create a world of small farms, Americans needed a strong government o Military o Strong economy o Strong population o Government infrastructure - Realizes that they need to reorganize their government - Articles of confederation o A war time government’s best shot of coming up with a better government o Don’t take effect until fighting ends o Agreed that US would be a perpetual union Form a nation composed of the thirteen colonies o Unclear how these bonds were o Called the future of US a firm league of friendship o Unclear country would look like and last o They didn’t have two houses of government o Had one major governmental unit Legislature One legislature in every state got one vote o This government had very little power o The government could only do a limited number of things Declare war Run foreign affairs Make treaties and alliances Could not tax, regulate commerce, trade or economy o Essentially this is foreign policy for the colonies o Equivalent to our federal government o Essentially unchangeable o Amendments were impossible Unanimous vote needed o Despite the fact that the colonies don’t know what they want to do Government is faced with a huge tax The West (NOT Florida) - Major recurring problems for the federal government, after war all these colonies do NOT agree on their borders o Agree what the borders are between them on the Atlantic coast o Further west, less they agree o Each individual state thinks they deserve a huge amount of territory o Federal government has to try and convince states to give up their claims or sort it out for themselves Also have to figure out how to give different Americans access to it Americans of the east should be given control of this land Thomas Jefferson - Important politician and American leader - Comes up with an idea on how to divide up all the land in the US - Wants to emphasize his dream o Create a system to divide up land in small chunks that are the right - Congress passes land ordinances o Rules on how land will be divided - Gets surveyors to go out all of the land and survey - Make a grid so that the land is exactly the same everywhere o Uniform system Section of land Basic unit o One mile by one mile Six hundred acres Divided into 36 more sections o Family farms US fund western settlement - Jeffersonian Land Policy o Square territories o Towns and schools Set distance apart Each section or township would be given oen town and one school o Louisiana is different Long thin slices connected to rivers o Frustrated with it Depression - Significance economic depression - It didn’t have a government that could regulate the government o This government had enormous debt Doesn’t have resources to back currency or pay off debt - Much of American commerce has disappeared o Commerce with Caribbean Cant trade with Caribbean - Many states make it illegal to pay debts - Other countries were still trading with the US o In order to compete with these cheap goods Lower wages they paid people - Massachusetts o Armed rebellion over the state of economy and collection of debts - Thomas Jefferson in Paris as diplomat o Gets letter about how bad things are o Response A little rebellion is good every now and again “Liberty for its object” - Samuel Adams o Our government has liberty for its object Spent decades under the British Not about to go ahead and institute a government of our own to create taxes o Stay out of people’s lives Only get involved on liberty - Idea decreases in like when people start to starve - Only way to solve countries problems is to establish a central government - All agreed that they need a stronger government - Philadelphia o Goal Start over Create a new constitution and new country o Thomas Jefferson and John Adams are absent Both serving in Europe o James Madison Lot of work of writing documents Note taker Voice of Thomas Jefferson Long time student and ally of Jefferson Reputation of being a brilliant political thinker o Alexander Hamilton Not born in the colonies Comes to the US as a very young man to serve in the army with Washington From the West Indies Comes with big hopes Forceful personality and brilliant mind Conflicted figure Cautious anti-slavery stances Uses slaves Most influential in building the economy Compelling figure Wanted a very powerful and active federal government Didn’t trust Americans Those who weren’t intellectually capable o Benjamin Franklin Older than many Shifted views Anti-slavery figure Very sympathetic about European views Defining voice of Pennsylvania o George Washington Seen as a unifying figure Likes to stay out of disagreements No political parties Sees himself as a leader who doesn’t take a lot of policy Led the United states to mliliatry victory in the revolution Constitutional Convention (1787) - Independence hall in Philadelphia o Decide what the process will be Agree that it would be a bad idea for the public to know Shut the windows and lock the public out o James Madison kept detailed notes Edited notes o Have an idea of what happened but not exactly what was said o 55 men o Considered able, qualified, and brilliant o Among the men, about half of them are college educated which is unusual Going to college was very rare Structure of Government - Basic structure o Agree on basic divisions of power Executive president Legislative Compromise Makes laws Congress o Senate Harder to get elected (6 years) Equivalent of nobility Equal representation o HOR Wanted to be strictly democratic (2 years) Population Judicial Supreme court o Each of these are seen as vitally necessary o First time US becomes truly democratic************** - Instills Federalism o Some powers will be on the federal level Military Taxation Regulate economy Foreign affairs o Some will be left to the state Education Much day to day government Law enforcement - Checks and Balances (Balanced government) o Important to founders o No single government could be no powerful Tyranny of king George o Congress enacts laws President can veto Supreme court can overturn o President appoints Justices Approved by Congress Life term protects them o Supreme court approves/ interprets laws Congress can change them President appoints Justices - Debate over Slavery o Started to realize that different states had different attitudes about slavery o Started to realize that all their concerns would lead back to slavery States could NOT agree on slavery o The US is not allowed to ban slave trade for twenty years - Slavery in the Constitution o Slaves escaping o Fugitive Slave Clause Bring back any slaves th o 3/5 Clause How the US counts it’s population Calculating representation Shapes the US How early presidents get elected - The Document o 1789 takes effect The Federalist - In favor of passing the constitution - Get name from the federalist papers - The constitution protects their liberties Anti-Federalist - Less high profiled - People who are local political leaders - Get support from less prominent areas of the country Ratification - Areas with cities and along the coast o Support constitution - More frontier o Don’t support What are the important liberties/freedoms/ rights in the Constitution? - Free speak - Right to vote - Bear arms - Representation - Freedom of religion - Freedom of assembly - These are all contained in the Bill of Rights Bill of Rights - Eventually agree to ratify constitution - Federalists promise to add a bill of rights after it is passed US in 1790 - Strong government - Functional military - Government structure
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