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Human Development Chapter 6 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 6 Notes HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapter 6 Notes
Meghan Skiba

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Class notes from Chapter 6 in Human Development
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes
Human Development
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Human Development Chapter 6 September 27, 2016 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Emotional Development (effortful control) Emotional Regulation ability to control when and how emotions are expressed cultural differences Emotional Regulation Influences maturation, learning, culture Initiative vs Guilt Erikson’s third crisis children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed North American Parents Ideally encourage enthusiasm, prevent guilt, encourage joy Pride and Prejudice Pride Includes gender, size, and heritage Prejudice involves feelings of superiority to children of other sex, nationality, or religion Brain Maturation Neurological Advances growth of prefrontal cortex at about age 4 or 5 myelination of the limbic system Improved Behaviors and Abilities longer attention span improved capacity for self control Motivation Intrinsic Motivation drive, or reason to pursue a goal (internal) Extrinsic Motivation drive, or reason to pursue a goal (need to have achievements rewarded externally) In Search of Praise Effectiveness of Praise Tied To: praise of particular production and not general trait specific praise for effort and not generalized statement Play Most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake play is universal Two general kinds of play solitary social Developmental Differences Infants: solitary or with parent Toddlers: slowly better playmates Young Children: best with peers Types of Play (Parten, 1932) Solitary: child plays alone, unaware of others playing nearby Onlooker: child watches other children play Parallel: children play with similar toys in similar ways but not together Associative: children interact, observing each other and sharing material Cooperative: children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity Active Play Sociodramatic Play allows children to act out various roles and themes in stories they create enables children to explore social roles, test ability to explain, develop self concept Baumrind’s Styles of Caregiving Parents differ on four important dimensions 1. Expressions of warmth 2. Strategies for discipline 3. Communication 4. Expectations for maturity Authoritarian: high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication Permissive: high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control Authoritative: parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children Neglectful/Uninvolved: parents are indifferent towards their children and unaware of what is going on in children’s lives Becoming Boys and Girls Before age 2: children know whether they are boys or girls and apply gender labels consistently By age 4: children are convinced that certain toys (such as dolls or trucks) are appropriate for one gender but not the other) Sex and Gender Sex Differences biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shapes Gender Differences differences in roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females Birth: Initial confusion about gender and sex Age 5: increased awareness of sex and gender differences Age 8: belief that their biological sex is a permanent trait Age 2-8: awareness of sex differences, preferences for same sex playmates, and stereotypical gender activities increase Theories of Gender Role Development Psychoanalytic Theory Phallic Stage: Freud’s third stage of development when the penis becomes focus of concern and pleasure Oedipus Complex: Unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mother’s exclusive love Identification: Considering the behaviors, appearance, and attitudes of someone else to be one’s own Behaviorism Gender Differences product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment Gender “Appropriate” rewarded more frequently than “gender “inappropriate” Social Learning Theory children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe Cognitive Theories Offers an alternative explanation for the strong gender identity that becomes apparent at about age 5 Gender Schema Child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences Based on his or her observations and experiences Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female and then think and behave accordingly Humanism Children srive for admiration from a group of peers they belong to even more than for the love of their parents Young children try to belong by conforming to gender norms Evolutionary Theory Sexual attraction is crucial for basic urge to reproduce males and females try to look attractive to the other sex in gendered ways young boys and girls practice becoming attractive to the other sex Moral Development Emotional and social maturation are the foundations for morality nature and nurture are always influential, but developmentalists disagree about which is more important for morality Nature Perspective morality is genetic outgrowth of natural bonding, attachment, and cognitive maturation Nurture Perspective culture is crucial to the development of morality Prosocial Behavior Extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit to oneself: increases with maturity (empathy) Antisocial Actions Deliberately hurting another person, including people who have done no harm; declines with maturity (antipathy) General Types of Aggression Instrumental Reactive Relational Bullying *all forms of aggression usually become less common from ages 2 to 6, as the brain matures and empathy increases Spanking, Slapping, and Beating Occurs frequently in the US more than other children in Canada and Western Europe Other Forms of Punishment Psychosocial Control disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents Time Out disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time Induction an alternative to physical punishment and psychological control Frequency of Maltreatment The 5 to 1 ratio of reported versus substantiated cases occurs because: each child is counted only once substantiation requires proof mandated reports are required signs of possible maltreatment some reports are screened out some reports are deliberately false PTSD – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms of maltreated children coincide with PTSD some maltreated children suffer from PTSD, with signs of neurological, emotional, and behavioral damage Three Levels of Prevention Primary Prevention: Focus on macrosystem and exosystem Secondary Prevention: Focus on warning signs and intervention Tertiary Prevention: Focus on everything that limits harm after maltreatment has already occured


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