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Anatomy & Physiology - Bone

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Bone 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Courtney Luber

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These notes cover what was talked about in both of the bone lectures.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Bone  Skeletal tissues o Cartilage  Almost all bone starts out as this, then gets converted to bone tissue o Bone  Skeletal cartilages o Cartilage tissue  No blood vessels or nerves running through it  Damage is hard to heal because no blood supply o Perichondrium  Connective tissue layer covering the outer surface of cartilage tissue  Dense irregular connective tissue  Rich in blood vessels and nerves o Hyaline cartilage  Most abundant in the skeletal system  Ends of bones are covered in hyaline cartilage  Costal cartilage, rings of trachea, cartilage that forms larynx, external nose, etc. o Elastic cartilage  Make sup external ear (pinna), and epiglottis o Fibrocartilage  Cartilage found at bones and joints  Extra pad of cartilage at some joints  Growth of cartilage o Appositional growth  From the edge  growth that is produced by the perichondrial cells  Perichondrial cells secrete new matrix; matrix then leads to new space, invaded by chondrocytes, etc. o Interstitial growth  Grows from within the cartilage itself  Due to chondrocytes in the lacunae  divide and secrete new matrix o Almost all cartilage stops growing at adolescence due to production of sex hormones  Not nose or ears  Skeletal divisions o Axial skeleton  Function: protection and support  Skull, vertebral column, ribs o Appendicular  Function: locomotion/movement  Everything that attaches to axial skeleton  Bones of limbs and girdles  Bone classifications o Long bone  Longer than it is wide  Upper limb bones & lower limb bones are almost all long bones  NOT patella, carpals, & tarsals  Every other bone in limbs ARE  Diaphysis – central portion of long bone  Hollow – medullary cavity o Lightens the bone  Filled with marrow o Yellow marrow - marrow on medullary cavity of diaphysis of long bone; composed of adipose tissue o Red marrow - found mostly in spongy bone; blood vessels  Dense, hard bone  compact bone  Membranous bone  spongy bone  Epiphyses – ends of long bones  Proximal & distal  No medullary cavity  Epiphyseal line – if thin, adult bone; if thick, child  Site of growth for bones  Can predict height from epiphyseal line  Membranes  Periosteum - layer of dense irregular connective tissue that covers outside of bone o Outer portion & inner portion o Inner - osteogenic tissue  “bone producing”  Osteoblasts – build matrix that becomes bone; bone producing cells  Osteoclasts – consume bone; break down bone  Endosteum – lining that covers inside of bone o Composed of mainly hyaline cartilage o Also osteogenic tissue  Bone textures o Compact bone  Dense  Provides strength and protection  Made up of harversian system o Spongy bone  Made up of little plates of bone called trabeculae  A lot of blood vessels  Bone classifications o Short bone  As wide as they are long  Carpals, tarsals  Sesamoid bone – grows within a tendon o Flat bone  Sternal, manubrium, skull, scapula, ribs o Irregular bone  Bones that don’t fit in any other category  Vertebrae, hip bones  Bone functions o Support  Rib cage supports chest muscles which allow us to breathe o Protection  Skull protects brain; vertebra protect spinal cord o Movement  Skeletal muscle attaches to bones  locomotion o Mineral storage  Ca & Po o Hematopoiesis  Blood cell production  Produced in red marrow  Compact bone anatomy o Osteons – functional unit of bone  Concentric ring of bone o Lamellae  Matrix part of bone  Hardened o Harversian canal  “central” canal  Hollow opening on middle of osteon  Nerves and blood vessels run through this  Blood vessels that go into our bones come from periosteum and penetrate in o Volkman’s canals  “Perpendicular” canals  Perpendicular to central canal o Lacunae  Area that houses the osteocyte o Osteocytes  Cell o Canaliculi  Little canals  Small channels that connect the osteocytes  Chemical composition of bone o Organic components  Cells  Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts  Osteoid  Matrix w/o middle  Consists of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans (central core of proteins & carbohydrate parts that stick off; mesh with each other; hold background matrix together) o Inorganic components  Hydroxyapatites  Mineral salt  65% of the mass of the bone  Mostly calcium phosphate (CaPo ) 4  Ossification o Latin  Os o Process of bone formation  Ossification processes o Intramembranous  Ossification from within a fibrous membrane  Fibrous tissue  bone o Endochondral  Ossification from within cartilage (specifically hyaline cartilage)  Far more common  Forming bone in the first place is basically the same process as growth and repair of bone  Intramembranous ossification o Membrane is center for ossification to begin o Mesoderm gives rise to bone (mesenchyme is tissue) o Accumulation of osteoblasts within membrane into a cluster in the middle of the membrane (center of ossification) o Osteoblasts start to produce bone matrix o Mineral salts are deposited in matrix and matrix hardens – calcification  Mineral salts are calcium rich o Individual osteoblasts are surrounded by calcified matrix  They get cut off from an oxygen supply  they die  = spongy bone & trabecular plates  Holes in trabeculae start to fill with blood vessels o Spongy bone fills with red bone marrow o **Bone formation always starts with spongy bone** o Trabecular plates become compact  leads to compact bone o Mesenchymal cells become periosteum  Dense irregular connective tissue  Endochondral ossification o Occurs within a cartilage model  hyaline cartilage o Bone templates made of hyaline cartilage  these become bone o All of the bones in your body except skull bones and clavicles are formed through endochondral ossification o Perichondrium (dense irregular connective) surrounds hyaline cartilage model o Need stimulus to get cartilage to change  Arrival of a blood vessel = stimulus o Blood vessel arrival changes local conditions of tissue o Blood vessel penetrates perichondrium in the middle of hyaline cartilage template and stimulates process o Osteoblasts start to form at that site of blood vessel arrival o Osteoblasts form ring (bone collar) around center of hyaline cartilage template o Primary center of ossification – osteoblasts build up in that place o Middle begins to ossify before the ends o Osteoblasts cause cartilage cells to burst  raises pH  changes solubility of Ca o Bone collar starts to calcify (harden) o Cavities form  early production of spongy bone in ring around center of template o Blood vessel finally gets to the middle of the template  now called periosteal bud  Artery, vein, and a bunch of nerves o Center is opened up to become medullary cavity  Osteoclasts break down spongy bone and make this cavity o Secondary centers of ossification form as ossification extends toward ends o Plate forms between ends of bones and middle of bones o Plates are wide and don’t close until puberty o Secondary ossification process is same process as primary ossification  But, no bone remodeling occurs  No medullary cavity o Center of bone gets turned into compact bone through bone remodeling while ends stay predominantly as spongy bone except for the part just deep of the periosteum  Bone growth o Length  Longitudinal bone growth  Typically the long bones that grow longer o Width  Appositional bone growth  Maintain medullary cavity and ratio of compact and spongy bone  Growth in length o Occurs in cartilage in epiphyseal plates o Cells on diaphyseal side divide and push plate away o Older cells deeper toward diaphysis enlarge, die and calcify o Bone produced is modified into compact bone o Spongy bone is formed FIRST o Osteoclasts digest cells to lengthen medullary cavity  Growth in width o Osteoblast beneath periosteum deposit bone one external surface o Osteoclast on endosteal surface remove bone o Marrow cavity enlarges  Bone remodeling o Bone deposit o Bone reabsorption o Coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts o Can occur at periosteum and at endosteum o Can aslo occur to help us remain mineral balance in body (specifically Ca) o If we have a surplus of Ca we’ll store it in bone o If we need Ca, we’ll take it from bone  Bone deposit o Osteocytes (osteoblasts) produce matrix devoid of minerals  Osteoid seam – matrix w/o minerals o Mineral accumulates – Ca & Po ions  form hydroxyapatite  accumulation comes from blood flow and nutrient you consume o Change in conditions o Minerals go out of solubility and crystalize  calcification which lead to bone  Bone reabsorption o T lymphocytes activate osteoclasts to secrete enzymes that digest matrix o Also secrete acid that converts Ca salts to soluble form o Digested matrix and dissolved minerals released into interstitial fluid on non-bone side of osteoclast o Eventually block bloodstream  Factors controlling bone growth o Diet  Foods high in calcium o Vitamins  Need vitamin D to allow calcium absorption  Vitamin D also produced by the skin o Hormones  Affect bone growth  Hormonal control of calcium o Parathyroid hormones and thyroid secretions function in feedback loop  Function: regulates blood calcium levels  Parathyroid = PTH  Thyroid = calcitonin o Low calcium levels trigger release of PTH which activates release of osteoclasts, which release calcium o Stresses determine location of hormonal influence  Only active at sites of stress o Calcitonin released when blood calcium levels are high  Shuts off osteoclasts  promotes calcium deposition into matrix  Other hormones o Growth hormone  Stimulates growth  Increases bone production o Testosterone/estrogen  Aid in bone growth  Close epiphyseal plates  Growth spurt as sex hormones are secreted  Growth stops after puberty  Faces/noses/jaws keep growing  Fractures o Partial  Break doesn’t go all the way through  “incomplete fracture” o Complete  Break goes all the way through o Simple (closed)  Break doesn’t cause bone to go through skin o Compound (open)  Break causes bone to go through skin  Creates an opening for pathogens into both body and bone o Displaced  Complete fracture where bones aren’t aligned anymore  Have to “set” the fracture o Comminuted  Causes bone to become splintered at break  Broken into tiny pieces o Spiral  Bones twist and separate apart o Greenstick  Common in children because bones are flexible  Partial fracture – one side of bone is broken and other side is bent o Impacted  One part of the bone is driven forcefully into another part o Pathologic  Due to disease  Weakening of bone (i.e. bone cancer)  Fracture repair o Fracture hematoma forms  Special blood clot o Prevents loss of blood from broken blood vessels o Callus forms  Fibrocartilagenous – “soft” callus  Puts other connective tissue in at site of break  Fibrocartilage  Reestablishment of blood vessels  Phagocytic cells clean area  Osteoblasts begin reconstruction  Bony o Remodeling  Osteoclasts reopen medullary cavity and eat away excess outside part  Spongy bone  compact bone  Where the break occurred is stronger after it is repaired than before  Effects of Aging o Decrease in protein formation  Matrix won’t be as strong  Leads to brittle bones  Can break without a trauma o Loss of calcium  Osteoblast activity decreases as a result of the reduction of sex hormones  Particularly important when loss of estrogen occurs  Loss of calcium/bone  osteoporotic bone  Effects of bone thinning after menopause can be offset by changing what you do in 20’s  Bone disorders o Rickets  Not enough vitamin D  Bones stay soft – diaphysis fail to ossify & epiphyseal plates enlarge  Bowed legs  weight of body forces bones to bend o Osteomalacia  Not enough vitamin D as an adult  Causes demineralization of bone which causes bones to soften and weaken o Padget’s disease  Excessive bone deposition and reabsorption  Bone constantly goes through remodeling  Lots of deformities  Clothes never look like they fit  Initially stimulated by getting a viral infection in the bone


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