Theories of Persuasion Week 6
Theories of Persuasion Week 6 CMS 332K
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cimmi Alvarez on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMS 332K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Matthew McGlone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Theories of Persuasion in Communication Studies at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Week 6 Consistency and Commitment People want there to be significant overlap between, beliefs, thoughts, attitudes and behaviors over two periods of time Face- public persona, public sense that exerts pressure on our need for constancy Balance Theory- agree with people we like and disagree with people we don’t like When we disagree with people we like/ agree with people we don’t like then we have imbalance Cognitive dissonance- will do psychological work to get over this dissonance. Unless clinically depressed we see ourselves as good people, with value, doing the right thing Basis of our thoughts Occasionally do stupid stuff A reasonably happy, content person with a good amount of self-esteem -> then you do something that goes against your image of yourself… something stupid immoral or foolish-> You experience dissonance ( an unpleasant arousal state that you are motivated to reduce)-> Fix it how: Change behavior Change one of your cognitions Add consonant cognitions Ideas that allow the first two to more peacefully coexist. Doing any of these things will reduce dissonance and you’re once again a happy camper. Heaven’s Gate “Monastery” 1997 Marshall Applewhite bought a telescope and then returned it for a refund From a gadget store in 1997 Explained to shop owner: We are looking at the Hale-Bopp Comet in the telescope- trying to look behind it for the spaceship that they believe is following behind the comet We can’t see the spaceship via the telescope There must be something wrong with the telescope They were planning to meet up with this spaceship as it got closer to earth. They had plans to leave earth to join spaceship and drin k poison to do this. Now called Heaven’s Gate Cult Clinical Psychologist story Fred is covered in duct tape under his pants. Regularly wrap midsection in duct tape- duct tapes his underwear on Does this because there is a group of people “space aliens” that were on a g named planet and he disclosed their existence to the FBI They directed a ray at him as payback and it gave him “homosexual thoughts” and so he duct tapped himself to control these thoughts and not act on them He is gay and wont admit it Extensive psychological rationalization. Ready to Turn some pegs? Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 2 Induce state of cognitive dissonance Students spend hour turning pegs in holes (really boring) Tells them he is studying motor behavior Paid either $1 or $20 to persuade another student that the task is interesting (LIE) Tell them that it wasn’t behavior but really ability to persuade. Convince the next person to participate in the study and pay them to do it. Later, students asked to rate their enjoyment of the task Interested in how people would react based on how they were getting paid and how they felt about the task If I pay you very little to do this then you have to convince yourself why you’re doing it $1 group believed they actually enjoyed the task because they had to justify why they are lying. $1 isn’t enough to lie so they fix their cognitive dissonance by justifying that it was actually a fun experiment $20 group no dissonance because the money justifies the lie Paid $20 I thought the task was boring. I told someone else the task was interesting I was paid a lot of money to lie DISSONANCE REDUCED Large payment justifies the lie Paid $1 I thought the task was boring I told someone else the task was interesting I was paid a little money to lie 3 DISSONANCE INTACT Small payment doesn’t justify the lie Dissonance Reduction-> Self-Persuasion We must explain to ourselves why we behave the way we do Paid 20 to recommend task to student I didn’t like the task, but I got paid well to recommend it Paid 1 to lie I didn’t mind the task; I wasn’t paid much money to recommend it Sometimes best way to persuade someone is to put them in a situation in which they must persuade themselves Initiation Severity Aronson and Mills 1959 Greek Hazing Rituals Stanford frat boys die because of drinking ritual Why do people so love what they suffer for? Making pledges suffer We suffer for those things we love You have to explain to yourself why you would do it to yourself Cognitive Dissonance Initiation ritual are a way to make you care about the group you are trying to become a part of. Study College women apply to participate in a sex discussion group Initiation is either mild, severe, or none Make a statement using these words Mild: prostitute, virgin, petting 4 Severe: use 12 obscene words Once they do this they are admitted into th e group and can now talk about sex Group discussion (run by confederates) designed to be mind - numbingly boring Talking about biology of sexual reproduction… BORING Results No initiation No attitude change- it was boring Mild Small attitude change Severe Large attitude change They had to justify the meeting and reported more enjoyment from the discussion group Had to reduce their dissonance Enthusiasm for the group because of initiation will wane over time but there will be other things that will bond you to it if not your commitment will wane Counter attitudinal Advocacy and AIDS Prevention – Aronson and Gonzalez 1995 Can you use cognitive dissonance to support safer sexual behavior? Told them doing educational campaign ask them to go on camera and: College student compose and record a speech describing the dangers of AIDS and advocating the use of condoms every time a person has sex. Four groups: 5 Information only: learn AIDS info, but don’t compose/ record speech Control Mindful only: contemplate times the failed to use condoms in the past Commitment only: Learn AIDS info, agree to compose/record speech “Hypocrisy” group: Learn AIDS info, contemplate failure to use condoms, compose/ record speech As the participants left the building there was a booth selling condoms wanted to know who would buy the condoms The people in Hypocrisy group were more likely to buy condoms and buy more condoms than the students in the other conditions. Pushing them to create the dissonance creates positive persuasive change How to Exploit the Consistency Norm Get target to make a commitment Initiation severity I did something embarrassing to join this discussion group The discussion is very boring Dissonance Reduction I did something embarrassing to join this discussion group The discussion is interesting 1. Get target to make a commitment Beach Burglar Study (moriarty, ’75) Confederate leaves blanket, radio, ect. Near target Before leaving asks target for commitment (would you watch my thigns) or not 6 Radio is “robbed” in confederate’s absence DV: Does the target intervene People who had made a commitment were more likely to intervene Step in, in some way Petition Power (Burger ’84) Apt. complex residence asked to Donate money for handicapped rec center 2 weeks earlier ½ residence asked to sign a petition to create a government funded rec center; other half not asked DV: Who donates? How much Signed petition 2 weeks earlier twice as likely to donate- they had already made a commitment. Also donated more money toward the cause Making a small commitment can add up in the long ru n Initial Commitment Later Behavior Safe sex speech Practice Safe Sex Promise to watch things Confront thief Sign Petition for a cause Donate $ to cause Sign petition for state beautification Put up safe driving sign in your yard Foot in the door- I did something small now I am willing to do something larger. Following through in consistency All about self persuasion Get people to persuade themselves 7 2. Make the Target’s commitment Voluntary (not mandatory) They who comply against their will are of their original opinion still! Shaping avoidance behavior in children (Kohnert ’91) Shaping Strategy Short-Term Long-Term Compliance Compliance Punishment High Low Directive + Warning High Low ( don’t, else) Reward High Low Directive only Mod-high moderate (don’t) (children explain to Use self persuasion themselves why Voluntary they shouldn’t do it) 8