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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Scheck on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1305 at Baylor University taught by Walter Holmes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see mod concepts of bioscience in Biology at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Mitochondria o without them we can only produce 2 ATP per glucose molecule o with them we produce around 30 ATP per glucose molecule o endosymbiosis o need energy to maintain the size of the cell o has its own DNA, it is circular prompting that it is a bacterium, have their own ribosomes too? o reproduce independently o smoot outer membrane o inner membrane with cristae (increases surface area) o intermembrane space Chloroplasts o Thylakoids-membranous sacs stacked to form granum o Stroma-internal fluid o Plastids- group of plant organelles Cytoskeleton- o Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm o Microtubules- largest, tubulin, lots of structural support and important in cell division o Microfilaments- actin, thinnest, contractile power, most shapeable, quick o Intermediate filaments- b/w in size, structural support, maintains positional support of organelles, keratin o Vesicles use the filaments to move o Centrosomes- pair of centrioles, organizing during cell division Movement o Flagella and cilia- core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma membrane basal body- triplet microtubules in a 9 ring to produce support o microfilaments actin subunits make up villi and microvilli (core) bear tension and resist pulling force function in cellular motility and contain myosin protein in addition to actin cell wall o prokaryotes, fungi, and some unicellular eukaryotes and plants o maintenance of shape o turgid o made of cellulose (beta configuration glucose) fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and proteins o plasmodesmata extracellular matrix o made of glycoproteins, (collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectins) o bind to receptor proteins called integrins o regulate a cells behavior by communicating through integrins connections o three types of junction’s common n epithelial tissues tight junctions – cells are pressed together so nothing can pass through, prevents leakage of extracellular fluids desmosomes- anchor cells together into strong sheets gap junctions- gap b/w cells allow transport of proteins and allows cell communication provide cytoplasmic channels b/w adjacent cells similarities b/w mitochondria and chloroplasts o both have their own DNA o have ribosomes o replicate by binary fission o double membrane o produce energy o both in plant cells differences o mitochondria ATP In both plants and animals Cristae to increase surface area Cellular respiration o Chloroplasts Sugar Absorb sunlight Photosynthesis Chlorophyll’ Granum (thylakoids) Theory of endosymbiosis o A big cell engulfed a little cell that produced energy and this begins to create eukaryia Differences b/w light and electron microscopes o Light microscope uses light and electron uses electrons hitting a subject and mapping out the image o Light can image live images o Electron can view much smaller images Surface area to volume o There needs to be more surface area to volume o This is important because now the cell can move more nutrients into the cell and expel more wastes keeping it healthy What do plants have that animal cells don’t o Cell wall o Chloroplasts o Vacuole-holds water and waste o Contractile vacuole-pumps out water and waste materials o Plasmodesmada-outgrowth in cell membrane that allows for transport
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