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week 6 notes

by: Aunjela Latham

week 6 notes Public health 2000

Aunjela Latham

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About this Document

Last tidbits before the Exam on Thursday.
Intro to public health
Heather Harmon
Class Notes
Epidemiology, Prevention, Risk, factors, Ethical
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aunjela Latham on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Public health 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Public Health 9.27.16 Epidemiology Problems with Studying Humans Epidemiology Studies ● Don’t test study on animals ● Do observe humans ● looking for patterns, relationship,cause and effect ● Helps us identify problems and prevention strategies Problems with studying humans Intervention Study: Study of the impact of an intervention on one group subject that is compared with the effect of a placebo or conventional therapy on a control group Problem-subjects may not follow prescribed behavior throughout study period Cohort Study: Study of a group of people, or cohort, followed over time to see how some disease or disease develop Problem -sometimes hard to isolate of many factors are responsible for health differences Case-control study- identify participants based on their disease/ outcome status, compare presence of risk factors ● study of people with same diseases ● problem: control group may not be truly comparable ; also errors in reporting or recall Sources of Error 1. Random variation- an association is made merely by chance 2. Confounding variables- factors associated with an exposure that may independently affect the risk of developing the disease. 3. Bias--systematic error in the design or conduct of a study that leads to a false association between exposure and disease. A. Selection bias B. Reporting bias or recall bias Studies ● Ongoing study of approx. 280,000 ● Began in 1976 ● Cohort Study British Doctor Study ● 1951-2001 ● Longitudinal cohort study ( similar charac.) ● 1956- proof of effects of smoking Examples of other studies ● Agricultural health study- a cohort study of the health of licensed pesticides applicators and their spouse ● Sister study- a cohort study of Ethical Issues ● Nazi experiments on humans ● Tuskegee syphilis study ● New rules- informed consent ● New rules- institutional review boards ● Importance of clinical trials ● Possibility of conflict of interest by medical providers who stand to profit Tuskegee Experiment -Clinical study from 1932-1972 to study to the natural progression of untreated syphilis - Tuskegee, Alabama -study to conduct on 600 poor , rural black men ( 399 with syphilis) -told they had bad blood and were receiving free health care from the U.S government -doctors lied and left untreated -1997 President Clinton issued a formal apology to the survivors of the experiment and their families. Given free health care for life Prevention and Intervention Are you entirely in charge of your own health? Levels of Prevention Primary Prevention -before the event Secondary Prevention -During the event pr in early stages Tertiary Prevention -after the event -meant to reduce death and disability Primary Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases ● Individuals - education, policies, and laws ● Communities - Resources - community events - Education - employment Secondary Individuals ● personal screenings, regular medical and dental check ups, pursuit of diagnosis and prompt Communities ● Mass screenings Tertiary Individuals ● Significant behavioral or lifestyle changes, adhere to prescribed medication, following rehab. Communities ● Adequate emergency medical personnel, equipment, and facilities Risk Factors and Symptoms Obesity - Listed under CDC site - Adults and children - Obesity rates have doubled since 1980s?


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