Chapter 11 Notes
Chapter 11 Notes PSYC 202
Christopher Newport University
Popular in Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition
Popular in Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Mozo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 11: Human Development (Childhood) I) Maturation in Infant Memory Tools of investigation o Preference techniqueout of two or more images, which does a child look at longer o Habituationwhen something is no longer novel and becomes boring o Using rewards Nature v. Nurture o Twin studies II) Periods of Pregnancy and Intrauterine Development Germinal o Zygote o First two weeks o Zygote mobs down to the uterus and implants in the lining Embryonic o 28 weeks o Major organs develop o Embryo o Critical periodstimes during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of an infant o Teratogenany factor that can cause a birth defect Fetal Period o 8 weeks to birth o Viabilitythe point at which it is possible for an infant to survive outside the womb (usually 2226 weeks) III) Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood Infants are born with reflexes that help them survive o Grasping o Rooting o Stepping o Sucking o Moro (startle) IV) Postnatal Physical Development Brain development o Visual system develops and infants can see 20/20 by about 6 months Motor development o Cephalocaudalinfants develop from the head down o Proximodistalinfants develop from the trunk out to the limbs V) Attachment Attachmentan affectional tie that one person forms between him/herself and another specific person A part of early social development “a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time” –Mary Ainsworth Body contact and familiarity help form attachment Temperamentinborn traits that effect how we respond to and interact with the environment Attachment differences o Secure o Resistant/anxious Formed as a result of inconsistency o Avoidant Forms as a result of being disconnected o Disorganized/disoriented Experiment: The Strange Situation o Mary Ainsworth VI) Cognitive Development Schemasmental models to understand the world around you o Assimilationfitting new information into existing schemas o Accommodationmaking new schemas to fit new information Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Stages o Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) Object permanence –the idea that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen Recognize self as an agent of action and begin to act intentionally Differentiates self from objects o Preoperational (2 to 7 years) Learn to use language and represent objects by images and words Egocentric thinkingcannot see things from others’ point of view Classify things by a single feature o Concrete Operational (7 to 11 years) Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conversation Can classify objects by multiple features o Formal Operational (11+ years) Can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals o Criticism of Piaget’s Theory No cultural variation Underestimated children VII) Autism Symptoms appear 23 years of age Occurs in 1 in 88 children 45 times more common in males Caused in part by genes/gene mutations Also caused by environmental factors such as o Parent age at conception o Difficulties during pregnancy/birth o Folic acid during pregnancy can reduce risk VIII) Freud’s Psychosocial Development Stages Oral o Ages 01 o Area of focusmouth, tongue, lips o Major developmentweaning off breastfeeding/formula o Adult fixationsmoking, overeating Anal o Ages 13 o Area of focusanus o Major developmenttoilet training o Adult fixationorderliness Phallic o Ages 36 o Area of focusgenitals o Major developmentresolving Oedipus/Electra complex o Adult fixationdeviancy, sexual dysfunction Latency o Ages 612 o Area of focusnone o Major developmentdeveloping defense mechanisms o Adult fixationnone Genital o Ages 12+ o Area of focusgenitals o Major developmentreaching sexual maturity o Adult fixationif all stages were successfully completed the person should be sexually matured and mentally healthy IX) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 1) Trust v. Mistrust 01 Favorable outcomefaith in environment and future events Unfavorable outcomesuspicion, fear of future events 2) Autonomy v. Doubt 23 Favorable eventsa sense of selfcontrol and adequacy Unfavorable outcomefeelings of shame and selfdoubt 3) Initiative v. Guilt 35 Favorable outcomeability to be a “selfstarter” to initiate one’s own activities Unfavorable outcomea sense of guilt or inadequacy to be on one’s own 4) Industry v. Inferiority 6puberty Favorable outcomeability to learn, understand, and organize Unfavorable outcomea sense of inferiority at understanding/organizing Chapter 11: Development (Adolescence/Adulthood) I) Physical Development Pubertyage of onset becoming earlier due to high fat diet Menarchefirst period for girls II) Cognitive Development Egocentric thinking Personal fableyoung people believe themselves to be unique and invincible Imaginary audienceyoung people believe that other people are just as concerned about their own thoughts Kohlberg’s Moral Development o Preconventional Based on obedience to avoid punishment o Conventional Based on authority and social order o Postconventional Based on social contract Erikson’s psychological stages o Industry v. Confusion (Adolescence) Favorable outcomeseeing oneself as a unique and integrated person Unfavorable outcomeconfusion over who or what one really is o Intimacy v. Isolation (Early Adulthood) Favorable outcomeability to make commitment to others Unfavorable outcomeinability to form affectionate relationships o Generativity v. Selfabsorption (middle age) Favorable outcomeconcern for family and society in general Unfavorable outcome III) Adulthood Physical change o Menopause o Sensory ability peaks at 25 o Health declines overall Cognitive Development o Memory o Intelligence Social Development o Less involved o Fewer friends IV) Grief Stages of grief: o Can happen in any order o People can get stuck in one stage o Some people may not experience all stages o Denial Acceptan Bargainin ce g Anger Depressio n Death/Dying o Having a strong immediate reaction not linked to quicker grieving progress o Time is most crucial
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