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Chapter 11 Notes

by: Jordan Marshall

Chapter 11 Notes PSYC 202

Jordan Marshall
Christopher Newport University
GPA 4.0
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Class notes from chapter 11
Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition
Dr. Mozo
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Mozo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 11: Human Development (Childhood) I) Maturation in Infant Memory  Tools of investigation o Preference technique­out of two or more images, which does a child  look at longer o Habituation­when something is no longer novel and becomes boring o Using rewards  Nature v. Nurture o Twin studies II) Periods of Pregnancy and Intrauterine Development  Germinal o Zygote o First two weeks o Zygote mobs down to the uterus and implants in the lining  Embryonic o 2­8 weeks o Major organs develop o Embryo o Critical periods­times during which certain environmental influences  can have an impact on the development of an infant o Teratogen­any factor that can cause a birth defect  Fetal Period o 8 weeks to birth o Viability­the point at which it is possible for an infant to survive  outside the womb (usually 22­26 weeks) III) Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood  Infants are born with reflexes that help them survive o Grasping o Rooting o Stepping o Sucking o Moro (startle) IV) Postnatal Physical Development  Brain development o Visual system develops and infants can see 20/20 by about 6 months  Motor development o Cephalocaudal­infants develop from the head down o Proximodistal­infants develop from the trunk out to the limbs V) Attachment  Attachment­an affectional tie that one person forms between him/herself and  another specific person  A part of early social development  “a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time” –Mary  Ainsworth  Body contact and familiarity help form attachment  Temperament­inborn traits that effect how we respond to and interact with the environment  Attachment differences o Secure o Resistant/anxious  Formed as a result of inconsistency o Avoidant  Forms as a result of being disconnected o Disorganized/disoriented  Experiment: The Strange Situation o Mary Ainsworth VI) Cognitive Development  Schemas­mental models to understand the world around you o Assimilation­fitting new information into existing schemas o Accommodation­making new schemas to fit new information  Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Stages o Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)  Object permanence –the idea that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen  Recognize self as an agent of action and begin to act  intentionally  Differentiates self from objects o Pre­operational (2 to 7 years)  Learn to use language and represent objects by images and  words  Egocentric thinking­cannot see things from others’ point of  view  Classify things by a single feature o Concrete Operational (7 to 11 years)  Can think logically about objects and events  Achieves conversation  Can classify objects by multiple features o Formal Operational (11+ years)  Can think logically about abstract propositions and  hypotheticals  o Criticism of Piaget’s Theory  No cultural variation  Underestimated children VII) Autism  Symptoms appear 2­3 years of age  Occurs in 1 in 88 children  4­5 times more common in males  Caused in part by genes/gene mutations  Also caused by environmental factors such as o Parent age at conception o Difficulties during pregnancy/birth o Folic acid during pregnancy can reduce risk VIII) Freud’s Psychosocial Development Stages  Oral  o Ages 0­1 o Area of focus­mouth, tongue, lips o Major development­weaning off breast­feeding/formula o Adult fixation­smoking, overeating  Anal  o Ages 1­3 o Area of focus­anus o Major development­toilet training o Adult fixation­orderliness  Phallic o Ages 3­6 o Area of focus­genitals o Major development­resolving Oedipus/Electra complex o Adult fixation­deviancy, sexual dysfunction  Latency o Ages 6­12 o Area of focus­none o Major development­developing defense mechanisms  o Adult fixation­none  Genital o Ages 12+ o Area of focus­genitals o Major development­reaching sexual maturity o Adult fixation­if all stages were successfully completed the person  should be sexually matured and mentally healthy IX) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 1) Trust v. Mistrust  0­1  Favorable outcome­faith in environment and future events  Unfavorable outcome­suspicion, fear of future events 2) Autonomy v. Doubt  2­3  Favorable events­a sense of self­control and adequacy  Unfavorable outcome­feelings of shame and self­doubt 3) Initiative v. Guilt  3­5  Favorable outcome­ability to be a “self­starter” to initiate one’s  own activities  Unfavorable outcome­a sense of guilt or inadequacy to be on one’s own 4) Industry v. Inferiority  6­puberty  Favorable outcome­ability to learn, understand, and organize  Unfavorable outcome­a sense of inferiority at  understanding/organizing Chapter 11: Development (Adolescence/Adulthood) I) Physical Development  Puberty­age of onset becoming earlier due to high fat diet  Menarche­first period for girls II) Cognitive Development  Egocentric thinking  Personal fable­young people believe themselves to be unique and invincible  Imaginary audience­young people believe that other people are just as  concerned about their own thoughts  Kohlberg’s Moral Development o Pre­conventional   Based on obedience to avoid punishment o Conventional  Based on authority and social order o Post­conventional  Based on social contract   Erikson’s psychological stages o Industry v. Confusion (Adolescence)   Favorable outcome­seeing oneself as a unique and integrated  person  Unfavorable outcome­confusion over who or what one really is o Intimacy v. Isolation (Early Adulthood)  Favorable outcome­ability to make commitment to others  Unfavorable outcome­inability to form affectionate  relationships o Generativity v. Self­absorption (middle age)  Favorable outcome­concern for family and society in general  Unfavorable outcome­ III) Adulthood  Physical change o Menopause o Sensory ability peaks at 25 o Health declines overall  Cognitive Development o Memory  o Intelligence  Social Development o Less involved o Fewer friends IV) Grief  Stages of grief: o Can happen in any order o People can get stuck in one stage o Some people may not experience all stages o Denial Acceptan Bargainin ce g Anger Depressio n  Death/Dying o Having a strong immediate reaction not linked to quicker grieving  progress o Time is most crucial


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