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ARH Rococo and Pompadour (week 4 notes)

by: Megan Dengler

ARH Rococo and Pompadour (week 4 notes) ARH 316B

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Art History > ARH 316B > ARH Rococo and Pompadour week 4 notes
Megan Dengler
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These notes cover the lecture on Rococo and Pompadour. In this lecture, we discussed pastorals, Boucher, putti, bird symbolism, and more in the 18th century in length
Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
Professor Plax
Class Notes
pompadour, boucher, pastorales, putti, putto, sevres, manufacture, biscuit
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
September 5, 2016 Boucher & Pompadour - Style: has 2 distinct but related meanings o Can be the “whole ball of wax”   Rococo has certain characteristics (composition, subject matter, appeals to  certain audience, color)  Iconography: the subject matter and how we recognize it  We often have to know the symbolism of the object o Formal qualities  The way the objects are arranged, symmetry (?),  - Francois Boucher o Best representative of the Rococo style o Characteristics  Uses a lot of pastels  Keeps eye moving around by implied lines o The Bird Nesters, 1748  Iconography: bird  People in love often gave a bird  Birds outside the cage is loss of virginity  She is holding the bird outside of the cage  Subject matter: pastoral  What Boucher excelled at o Figurines designed by Boucher  Boucher’s work was turned into figurines and collected  Little Dancer, after 1753  Grape Harvester, after 1753 o Introduced the idea of children involved in adult activities  Usually part of a decorative motif o Painted wall panels designed by Boucher: The Arts and Sciences * Scenes are filled with humorous asides  Child is looking through wrong end of telescope  Astronomy  Dance  Bird hunting and Horticulture  Children engaged in these activities o People found this “charming” - Carle Van Loo o Another favorite of Madame de Pompadore o Allegory of the Arts, 1752  Painting  Sculpture  Architect - The “Cuteness” of Children o Art that was meant to please, not to communicate a moral message or commemorate  something o Jean Fragonard, A Swarm of Cupids  Not well received by people who thought art should be didactic - Boucher: best known for his mythological paintings o Jupiter Seducing the Nymph Callisto under the Guise of Diane, 1759  Myth: Jupiter was always trying to seduce young women and always  disguised himself (in this case, as Callisto)  Lots of extra decoration and visual distraction to keep a serious narrative  from forming o Rape of Europa, 1747  Jupiter disguises himself as a beautiful white cow to seduce Europa o Rape of Europa, 1732 - Boucher creates lots of allegories about love o Allegory: images that use symbols to convey an idea  You have to know the symbols o Triumph of Fidelity, 1758  The mask: you are unmasked, faithful, and true  The dog: symbol of fidelity o Allegory of Love, or Target of Love, 1758  Doves: Venus’ birds (they mate for life) - Two different (and common) subjects o 1. Subject: Venus and Vulcan; Content: The Woman on Top  The story of Venus Requesting Vulcan to make Arms for Aeneas, 1732  Subject: Venus had many affairs, forced to marry ugly Vulcan, gives  birth to Aneas (illegitimately). She asks Vulcan to make armor for  him when he is older  Content: (the meaning it would hold for the viewers) o A man being humiliated and the female having the upper  hand o There was a fear in society at the time that women were  becoming out of place, corrupting society, getting involved in  the affairs of men (has to do with the position of Madame de  Pompadour)  Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas o 2. Subject: Hercules and Omphale  Myth: As punishment for an angry outburst, he has to become basically  Omphale’s servant  He is emasculated  It all works out – they fall in love  Boucher, Hercules and Omphale, 1734  Distaff has fallen to the side  They are kissing o One of few paintings that shows people making contact  Charles­Antoine Coypel, Hercules and Omphale, 1731  She has taken over his symbols (the club)  Hercules is spinning yarn, wearing jewelry, holding distaff o Distaff – symbol of femininity - Madame de Pompadour o Patroness of the arts o Official mistress of Louix XV (“Louis the Beloved”)  “Mistress of title”   Louis XV  Married to Marie Leczinska, a polish princess o Louis was 15, she was 22 o They never really “hit it off” o Had 10 children o Jean­Marc Nattier, Portrait of Marie Leczinska, 1748  She was religious o Louis Tocque, Portrait of Queen Marie Leczinska, 1740  Dressed up o Not of nobility, but from a wealthy family  Caused problems  Members of the court looked down on her  Mother and one of her mother’s protectors (lover) decided that she should be  the royal mistress and groomed her  Gave her lessons  She was married to the nephew of her mother’s protector, which was  later annulled when she became the mistress  Meeting with the king was arranged o Real name: Jean Poisson o Lived at Versailles and had quarters in the attic  Quite modest o Talented actress o Very adept at engaging with people  Louis XV was morbidly shy and had a hard time dealing with people  Became very close friends o One of her hobbies was building and decorating houses  Her favorite was Chateau Bellveau  Commissioned Boucher to paint in Bellveau  Had specific content: enduring love  Boucher, Apollo Revealing himself to the Shepherdes Isse o Shepherd is a portrait of madame de pompadour o Man is Louis XV  The Rising and Setting of the Sun, 1748 o Convey idea that the love between her and Louis XV was as  constant as the rising/setting of the sun o Jean­Marc Nattier, Portrait of Mme de Pompadour as Diana, 1746  Pompadour is supposed to be disguised as Diana here o Had a younger brother  Educated to become superintendent of buildings  Responsible for all of the royal buildings and the artwork within,  overseeing the royal academy of painting and sculpture  Louis Tocque, Marquis de Marigny, 1755  J.­F. de Troy, Marquis de Marigny, 1750 o She kind of controlled the arts/culture  Etchings done by Madame de Pompadour  Did gem carving  Genuis of Music, 1752  “Friendship,” A print by Mme de Pompadour after an engraved stone o Boucher drew it and she carved it o Very concerned with the idea of friendship  Got sick and stopped having sexual relations with Louis XV, but kept her  title  Remained friends with Louis XV  Commissioned sculptures to do allegories of friendship, represented by  female figures o Boucher, Portrait of Mme de Pompadour, 1756  She became the lady of waiting to Louis XV’s queen  Huge honor  Beautiful, sophisticated, knowledgeable  Reading, writing, burned candle (up late reading)  Roses crossed (symbol of her and Louis XV)  Her favorite pet dog was included  Equivalent of a court portrait  Large, grand, but for the mistress  Tiny feet o She and Louis XV love collecting porcelain  Established the Sevres porcelain manufacture  Uses lots of deep colors o Gondola shaped pot­pourri urn  The best artists were employed here  Sevres ware, Children Drinking Milk, 1759  Sevres, Friendship, 1753 o A model of a bigger sculpture done for the gardens of  Versailles  Biscuit Ware: a process for making porcelain that creates a finish  that imitates marble (not reflective) o One of the specialties of the Sevres  Wanted to rival Germany (who produced the best porcelain)  One of the goals of Sevres o The Petit Trianon, Versailles, by Jacques­Anges Gabriel, 1760­1764  Gift of Louis XV for Madame de Pompadour  A private property for her to get away to  Uses classical architectural vocabulary  Very concerned with proportionality o Carle Van Loo, The Arts Imploring Destiny to Save the Life of Madame de  Pompadour, 1764  Context: Madame de Pompadour was very sick for a long time  Destiny is spinning the thread of life  The symbols/allegories of the arts are imploring Destiny to save her life September 5, 2016 Boucher & Pompadour - Style: has 2 distinct but related meanings o Can be the “whole ball of wax”  Rococo has certain characteristics (composition, subject matter, appeals to certain audience, color)  Iconography: the subject matter and how we recognize it  We often have to know the symbolism of the object o Formal qualities  The way the objects are arranged, symmetry (?), - Francois Boucher o Best representative of the Rococo style o Characteristics  Uses a lot of pastels  Keeps eye moving around by implied lines o The Bird Nesters, 1748  Iconography: bird  People in love often gave a bird  Birds outside the cage is loss of virginity  She is holding the bird outside of the cage  Subject matter: pastoral  What Boucher excelled at o Figurines designed by Boucher  Boucher’s work was turned into figurines and collected  Little Dancer, after 1753  Grape Harvester, after 1753 o Introduced the idea of children involved in adult activities  Usually part of a decorative motif o Painted wall panels designed by Boucher: The Arts and Sciences * Scenes are filled with humorous asides  Child is looking through wrong end of telescope  Astronomy  Dance  Bird hunting and Horticulture  Children engaged in these activities o People found this “charming” - Carle Van Loo o Another favorite of Madame de Pompadore o Allegory of the Arts, 1752  Painting  Sculpture  Architect - The “Cuteness” of Children o Art that was meant to please, not to communicate a moral message or commemorate something o Jean Fragonard, A Swarm of Cupids  Not well received by people who thought art should be didactic - Boucher: best known for his mythological paintings o Jupiter Seducing the Nymph Callisto under the Guise of Diane, 1759  Myth: Jupiter was always trying to seduce young women and always disguised himself (in this case, as Callisto)  Lots of extra decoration and visual distraction to keep a serious narrative from forming o Rape of Europa, 1747  Jupiter disguises himself as a beautiful white cow to seduce Europa o Rape of Europa, 1732 - Boucher creates lots of allegories about love o Allegory: images that use symbols to convey an idea  You have to know the symbols o Triumph of Fidelity, 1758  The mask: you are unmasked, faithful, and true  The dog: symbol of fidelity o Allegory of Love, or Target of Love, 1758  Doves: Venus’ birds (they mate for life) - Two different (and common) subjects o 1. Subject: Venus and Vulcan; Content: The Woman on Top  The story of Venus Requesting Vulcan to make Arms for Aeneas, 1732  Subject: Venus had many affairs, forced to marry ugly Vulcan, gives birth to Aneas (illegitimately). She asks Vulcan to make armor for him when he is older  Content: (the meaning it would hold for the viewers) o A man being humiliated and the female having the upper hand o There was a fear in society at the time that women were becoming out of place, corrupting society, getting involved in the affairs of men (has to do with the position of Madame de Pompadour)  Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas o 2. Subject: Hercules and Omphale  Myth: As punishment for an angry outburst, he has to become basically Omphale’s servant  He is emasculated  It all works out – they fall in love  Boucher, Hercules and Omphale, 1734  Distaff has fallen to the side  They are kissing o One of few paintings that shows people making contact  Charles-Antoine Coypel, Hercules and Omphale, 1731  She has taken over his symbols (the club)  Hercules is spinning yarn, wearing jewelry, holding distaff o Distaff – symbol of femininity - Madame de Pompadour o Patroness of the arts o Official mistress of Louix XV (“Louis the Beloved”)  “Mistress of title”   Louis XV  Married to Marie Leczinska, a polish princess o Louis was 15, she was 22 o They never really “hit it off” o Had 10 children o Jean-Marc Nattier, Portrait of Marie Leczinska, 1748  She was religious o Louis Tocque, Portrait of Queen Marie Leczinska, 1740  Dressed up o Not of nobility, but from a wealthy family  Caused problems  Members of the court looked down on her  Mother and one of her mother’s protectors (lover) decided that she should be the royal mistress and groomed her  Gave her lessons  She was married to the nephew of her mother’s protector, which was later annulled when she became the mistress  Meeting with the king was arranged o Real name: Jean Poisson o Lived at Versailles and had quarters in the attic  Quite modest o Talented actress o Very adept at engaging with people  Louis XV was morbidly shy and had a hard time dealing with people  Became very close friends o One of her hobbies was building and decorating houses  Her favorite was Chateau Bellveau  Commissioned Boucher to paint in Bellveau  Had specific content: enduring love  Boucher, Apollo Revealing himself to the Shepherdes Isse o Shepherd is a portrait of madame de pompadour o Man is Louis XV  The Rising and Setting of the Sun, 1748 o Convey idea that the love between her and Louis XV was as constant as the rising/setting of the sun o Jean-Marc Nattier, Portrait of Mme de Pompadour as Diana, 1746  Pompadour is supposed to be disguised as Diana here o Had a younger brother  Educated to become superintendent of buildings  Responsible for all of the royal buildings and the artwork within, overseeing the royal academy of painting and sculpture  Louis Tocque, Marquis de Marigny, 1755  J.-F. de Troy, Marquis de Marigny, 1750 o She kind of controlled the arts/culture  Etchings done by Madame de Pompadour  Did gem carving  Genuis of Music, 1752  “Friendship,” A print by Mme de Pompadour after an engraved stone o Boucher drew it and she carved it o Very concerned with the idea of friendship  Got sick and stopped having sexual relations with Louis XV, but kept her title  Remained friends with Louis XV  Commissioned sculptures to do allegories of friendship, represented by female figures o Boucher, Portrait of Mme de Pompadour, 1756  She became the lady of waiting to Louis XV’s queen  Huge honor  Beautiful, sophisticated, knowledgeable  Reading, writing, burned candle (up late reading)  Roses crossed (symbol of her and Louis XV)  Her favorite pet dog was included  Equivalent of a court portrait  Large, grand, but for the mistress  Tiny feet o She and Louis XV love collecting porcelain  Established the Sevres porcelain manufacture  Uses lots of deep colors o Gondola shaped pot-pourri urn  The best artists were employed here  Sevres ware, Children Drinking Milk, 1759  Sevres, Friendship, 1753 o A model of a bigger sculpture done for the gardens of Versailles  Biscuit Ware: a process for making porcelain that creates a finish that imitates marble (not reflective) o One of the specialties of the Sevres  Wanted to rival Germany (who produced the best porcelain)  One of the goals of Sevres o The Petit Trianon, Versailles, by Jacques-Anges Gabriel, 1760-1764  Gift of Louis XV for Madame de Pompadour  A private property for her to get away to  Uses classical architectural vocabulary  Very concerned with proportionality o Carle Van Loo, The Arts Imploring Destiny to Save the Life of Madame de Pompadour, 1764  Context: Madame de Pompadour was very sick for a long time  Destiny is spinning the thread of life  The symbols/allegories of the arts are imploring Destiny to save her life


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