BIOL 2312 Class Notes Week 5
BIOL 2312 Class Notes Week 5 Biol 2312
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Westermann on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
September 22, 2016 Endocrine System o Compliments the nervous system 4 Mechanisms of Cell Communication o Direct contact Gap junction, conduction, chemically from one cell to another o Synaptic Signaling o Endocrine Signaling systemic o Paracrine Signaling Talking to cells around them Changes occur locally Stimulus => Sensor => Effector => Response o Effector: gland (production/halt production) o Sensor and Effector may be a single cell, endocrine organ, or series of endocrine organs Hormone o Regulatory chemical o Secreted and carried in the blood o Can act at a distance from the source o Sufficiently complex Tweaking this system is difficult Don’t want certain hormones to affect everything o Adequately stable Neurotransmitters o Work in synaptic area Neurohormones o Blood based Paracrine Regulators o Do not travel in blood o Allow cells of organ to regulate each other Autocrine regulators o Self regulating o Positive feedback Pheromones o Released into environment to communicating to individuals of a species o Debate over whether they are found in humans or not o Not involved in normal metabolic regulation within an animal Paracrine regulators o Occur in most organs o Growth factors o Epidermal growth factor o Nerve growth factor o Insulinlike growth o Cytokines Receptor proteins o Regulatory enzymes Nitric Oxide (NO) o Functions as a neurotransmitter o Produced by endothelium of blood vessels Erections, injuries Endothelium stimulates vasoconstriction Steroids o Long lasting effect o Need to be super precise when it comes to controlling or regulating steroid usage Hormones o Lipophilic Nonpolar Fat soluble Steroid and thyroid hormones o Hydrophilic (polar) Watersoluble All other hormones Freely soluble in blood
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