Chapter 4 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Wetzel on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 4 Personality: Understanding the Complexity of Human Behavior in the Organization Personality Personality is the unique combination of ways of thinking and behaving that make an individual who he or she is. It makes the person unique from others. Stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine psychological behavior. Determines how people react to the same situation differently Described in terms of how we perceive someone labeling. Interactional Psychology Behavior is a function of continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation. Person is active, both changing the situation and being changed by it. People differ from each other by cognition, emotion, motivation and ability. Objective situation and person’s subjective view are equally important. Human behavior is a function of: Personality Nature of the situation Continual interaction between the two Employees react to and evaluate the demands of their work settings Personality determines Heredity Genetic factors influence our personality 1. Factors present at birth 2. Physical stature 3. Gender 4. Energy level Culture Situation Organizational Culture What is culture? How do we acquire it? How does it influence our personality? Organizational socialization Change attitudes Adjustment to new job Adjustment to work groups and practices Skill set Knowledge Presents a challenge Consists of relevant training Gives timely and consistent feedback Psychoanalytical Theory Unconscious: Human nature dominated by instinctual, unconscious, and irrational forces. Humans are selfish: at war with self, both internally and externally: aggressive and sexual No free will: therefore incapable of dealing with own psychological problems Defense Mechanism Repression kept in the unconscious Displacement taking out impulses on less threatening target Reaction formation behaving in a way that is the opposite of one’s true feelings. Rationalization false but logical reason Identification improve selfesteem by alliance Sublimation acting out our impulses in acceptable ways Projection attributing one’s own thoughts, motives to another Avoidance withdraw from conflict situations Trait Theory Trait conscious determine of behavior A trait is what we call a characteristic that predicts the way in which an individual perceives feels, believes, or acts. You can predict behavior based on the presence of certain lasting traits Traits Cardinal traits Single defining traits that characterize some, but not all, individuals. Central traits Typical 510 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letter of recommendation,, or in brief verbal descriptions of a person” Secondary traits Like central traits but more specific to a particular stimuli or particular responses. Big Five theory (5factor model) Emotional stability calm, secure, happy Extraversion sociable, outgoing Openness to experience curious, creative Agreeableness cooperative, caring Conscientiousness dependable, hard working Humanistic theory Individual determines his or her own growth 1. Congruent open, not defensive, high self esteem 2. Incongruent tense, anxious, defensive selfprotection 3. Manager should never attack an employee’s self esteem Accordingly, humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons, instead of factors that determine behavior. This approach is very optimistic and focuses on noble human capacity to overcome hardship and despair. Locus of Control Extent to which people perceive that control over their lives is within their control or beyond their control. Type A & B Behavior Type A (40%) Type B (60%) Competitive Easygoing Achievement Team worker Aggressive Relaxed Hard driving Unhurried Impatient People oriented Easily irritated Satisfied Detail oriented HighMach Personality Power hungry Manipulative Pragmatic Emotional distant No concern with morality Detached Bureaucratic personality Conformity, adherence to rules and regulations Impersonal social interactions Accepting of higher authority Status Quo organizational selfidentity In the box What was—not what could be