Freud Part 3:
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eileen artigas on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLPS 0701 at Brown University taught by Professor Hayden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Was Freud onto something? Freud + neuroscience= major contributions? Conscious and unconscious systems not categorically distinct, but a continuum(Freud was rewriting his work towards the end of his life) Neuroscientists- Freud's "Unconscious" do in fact have a lot to do with regulating our mood, impulses, behavior Donald Hebb points out- there are at least 100000 synapses Edelman- what is consciousness? Has to do with interconnections within the brain multiple parts of brain communicating, as you experience something from external world Crick- consciousness- we are talking about number of neurons employed to do something, only when it reaches a threshold that we get to level of consciousness Nature of consciousness: degree of awareness? Bell et al, 2015- part of the primitive system of eel picking up electrical field of other fish and influencing what fish is going to do, one part of brain reacting to external stimuli, other part taking that account and coordinating a response Voluntary vs. Involuntary (Kihlstrom,1998) Freud perhaps was onto something when he made distinction of two part of brain but not two part, one part operating in continuous way but no voluntary control of it, if you were to have an individual encounter something, the researcher in greeting the subject simply smiled vs no smile, explain procedure, have indiv. Rate procedure, have indiv rate the experimenter, statistical difference, part of brain registering in limbic system? On an involuntary basis certain things are going on as a byproduct of external stimuli but involuntarily affecting a voluntary action (rating the procedure) Baldwin '05- had subjects (post docs) write down some of their ideas, present something on screen for 4 miliseconds, registered by the brain but not conscious (did not reach threshold), as writing ideas, presented with smiling face or scowl, later asked to present what they thought of research ideas they wrote earlier, postgrads much more likely to thin research ideas had merit after seeing smiling face subliminal Bargh and Chartrand, 1999 Control vs. automatic Presented various words that had to do with youth and age Half of the subjects associated with elderly ppl (difficulty with eyesight, hearing walking, etc) Half of the subjects associated with youth Ppl with elderly words walked slower exiting research lab Some dichotomy vs level of awareness, subtle effect on behavior Transference- we may be affected by stimulus in involuntary way, affecting conscious behavior Attributing attributes of significant other onto a similar person: one is aware of attributes seen in a significant other, but may not notice when attributing some of these same attributes to another person (Anderson, 2014) Phineas Gage- building railway, explosion, large metal rod went through forehead, went through considerable personality changes (Freud would say- ego is damaged, the id is in control, impulses, profanity, irreverence) Research on Repressors- somebody who is not aware of own physical body, out of touch with body,(i.e. are you anxious?, no, but secretion of cortisol, high heart rate, etc.) have very few conscious negative memories (more consistent with Freud's idea) more memories of other people's emotional experiences, less of themselves Rating as low repressors, aware of body Shevrin '02- look at neuroanatomical activity specific to one of Freud ideas- look at activation of motor cortex, able to implant electrode in motor cortex, divided high in repression with high in repression, presented them with various tasks, individuals high in repression activation of motor cortex significantly delayed Operational definition of repression specific to motor cortex- Freud also believed part of brain dealing with repression was in the motor cortex READ Baumeister et al- review research on whether or not defense mechanism exist, somewhat mixed bag, quite a number of defense mechanisms, researchers say some can be thrown out, but not necessarily the idea of defense mechanisms , evidence of denial, projection (mechanisms of projection may not be exactly as Freud believed) more in line with functional projection (Maner '05) Cramer- better way of looking at defense mechanisms- if enhancing self esteem, nothing to do with modifying id instincts George Vaillant (1999) Tried to place DM into developmental model, as we evolve, we develop more sophisticated DM Level 1 (ages 0 to 5) Defenses serve to alter reality Level 2 (age 3 to 15) Defenses to alter distress created by interpersonal relationships Level 3 (ages 3 to 90) Defenses alter feelings Level 4 (ages 12 to 90) Defenses integrate reality interpersonal relationships and feelings Those who tended to look the less sophisticated defense mechanisms- more illnesses, more divorces, ruptures in friendships, economic difficulties Vaillant had ppl come back and indicate number of stressors and traumas, saw no difference, had to do with how you responded to trauma, not whether it happened or not 2006 more interested in most sophisticated defense mechanisms (altruism, humor, suppression, anticipation, sublimation) Freud believed humor, when done appropriately should be enjoyed by everyone, Freud did not mean passive aggressive humor Sublimation0 not only giving me pleasure as artist, but audience too Altruism- allows me to think Im doing good deeds, and you as the recipient of good deeds benefit too Great degree of reciprocity- individuals who used level 4 mechanisms were in great shape psychologically Dreams Daniel Wegner '04 Where does REM sleep occur? Limbic system? (where Freud placed "ID") maybe in REM sleep, part of brain driving the dream is the ID Had individuals identify someone you have a crush on vs fond of (5 min before going to sleep think of someone you have crush on or not, vs. think of person you are fond of or don’t) when you wake up record dreams you had Interested in idea that if you suppress something, that's what you are going to dream of, "rebound effect", That’s exactly what he found Bornstein '05- if I become overly dependent on parents, orientation towards world is relatively passive, to get you to help me vs, get me to help myself Established ppl high in dependency found in their description of parents, were rated as overprotective Freud may be overemphasizing, making linear connection between biological determinism and psychological determinism Rate of depression in dependency group was much higher (suicidal ideation greater) (this is what Freud though of oral dependency) High in dependency were more likely to be overweight, smokers, higher instances of eating disorder When Bornstein introduced authority figure into room, dependent individual became incredibly competitive Silverman 1978+ Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation Activation unconscious conflict (will it affect your behavior) believed men had unconscious competitive with father, throw 8 darts (beating daddy ok, neutral stimulus, beating daddy not ok) if presented with neutral, same score relative to baseline, if they saw beating daddy is ok, score higher than baseline, if they saw beating daddy was wrong, score lower than baseline Repeated several times, most times replicated Increase/decrease psychopathy Alters behavior (dart throws grades weight loss, etc) Silverman 1978+ Mother-child interaction/conflict (attachment template) Mommy and I are one, vs neutral stimulus Those who saw mommy and I are one did better in his course Replicated in weight loss clinic- lost ore weight if presented mommy and I are one Attachment and Behaviors as Adults: Fraley and associates, 2000+ Freud emphasizing our attachment to our parents and got caught up in psychosexual stages Attachment is what is fundamental, ability to become securely or insecurely attached to parent Correlation between early and later attachment r=.39) Adult attachment predicts their infant's attachment 85% of the time Secures have fewer divorces than insecurities If I don't know how to connect with my parent, I can't make my child attach to me Young couples (knew in advance whether securely attached or not), whether coupled during Thanksgiving break were going to fly together, anxious insecure type, separation anxiety Securely attached function better- like work/vacations, happier, friends Waters et al 2015 Secure attachment and Intergenerational Transmission If securely attached- By time child is 10 or 11, write scripts about themselves that manifests self esteem im connected to people when in trouble I can rely on them Secure parent influences parenting behavior Secure parent reminisce positively about their past providing structure/organization to a world view that facilitates adaptation Insecure attachment does not predict psychopathy but does increase likelihood
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