Abnormal Psychology Sept 13 (week 3)
Abnormal Psychology Sept 13 (week 3) PSYC 2011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesse Catir on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Sherry Molock in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Risk and Prevention Diathesis - A diathesis is a biological or psychological predisposition to disorder - Diatheses are often genetic or biological, but some diatheses are psychological • Psychological predispositions increase vulnerability to mental disorders • The presence of stressors as well as a predisposition can produce psychological problems • TEST Q: The combination of predisposition and the stressor is what creates the disorder - A diathesis-stress model integrates theoretical perspectives of mental disorder and provides information about etiology (cause), treatment, and prevention - resilience: when someone is under extreme stress but still doesn’t turn to alcohol abuse, as an example Epidemiology - TEST Q: think of ﬁrst two letters in word I is for incidence, N is for new, incidence is number of NEW cases - Epidemiology: study of patterns of disease or disorder in the gen pop - Incidence: a number of new cases of a mental disorder within a speciﬁc time period - Prevalence: all cases that have particular disorder during a speciﬁc time - Lifetime prevalence: proportion of individuals who have had a certain mental disorder at any time in their life - Approximately 1/2 of American adults have a diagnosable mental disorder, but many are not in treatment or have mild symptoms - Comorbidity: is the presence of two or more disorders, and is strongly implicated in the severity of mental disorder - anxiety disorder, depression and mood disorder tend to go together - eating disorders and mood disorders are highly comorbid - substance abuse comorbid with anxiety disorders - pay attention to onsets. one of the key things we look at is the age of onset - TEST Q: pay attention to whether it runs in the family and age of onset when diagnosing Cohort Eﬀects - cohort eﬀects are signiﬁcant diﬀerences in disorder expression depending on demographics such as age or gender - Cohort eﬀects may be related to conditions that change over time • increased in # of people dx (e.g., ADHD) • Changes in availability of substances (e.g., ETOH, cigarettes) level of diagnosis or availability of alcohol - Depression is THE most disabling disorder in the world - TEST Q!!!!!: behaviors that are negatively reinforced are always diﬃcult to treat because you are avoiding what you are afraid of - good to put kids in to treatment earlier because they can develop better coping skills earlier Risk Factors - TEST Q: remember PRECEDE - Risk factor: individual or environmental characteristic that precedes a mental disorder and is correlated with that disorder - TEST Q: easiest way to remember things are ﬁxed risk factor, things that are internal to the person. can’t change family history, race, gender, etc. - Some risk factors are “ﬁxed” while others are “dynamic” - can change over time (SES, social support) - Risk factors must precede dev of the disorder; the disorder cannot cause the risk factor - risk factor can be a diathesis, not always but it could be. risk factor precedes the disorder, the disorder can not cause the risk factor. - examples of risk factors: • age • education - low levels of education means you have fewer resources and the resources are fragile • employment - you have fewer resources and the resources are fragile • gender • race and ethnicity Protective Factors Individual • positive temperament • above-average intelligence • social competence • spirituality or religion Family • smaller family structure • supportive relationships with parens • good sibling relationships • TEST Q: adequate monitoring and rule-setting by parents (very important. biggest predictor of child problems is when parents don’t monitor their children) Community • commitment to schools • availability of health and social services • social cohesion (how tight knit and how well do neighbors know each other. collective eﬃcacy. reduces crime and behavioral problems) Resilience - Resilience: ability to withstand and rise above extreme adversity • probably protects people from developing mental disorder - Factors that promote resiliency include spirituality, religiosity, strong family and community support, strong academic and social competence - TEST Q: Kids who are resilient have a lot of risk factors, but in spite of that they don’t develop disorders. sometimes these kids are called “weeds” bc weeds can break up the sidewalk, plants that can thrive no matter where they are. - TEST Q: when kids are vulnerable bc of lots of diathesis or risk factors, then you want to use protective factors to help build resilience in children. “buﬀering" Prevention - Prevention: factors that thwart or hinder the development of later mental health problems • Prevention programs often seek to DECREASE risk factors and INCREASE protective factors • prevention can be viewed along a continuum with treatment and maintenance - Primary prevention refers to providing intervention to people with no signs of a particular disorder - Secondary prevention refers to addressing manageable problems before they become more resistant to treatment - Tertiary prevention refers to reducing the duration and negative eﬀects of a mental disorder after its onset - Universal Prevention: targets large group or population before disorder occurs • Ex: screening children for sickle cell disease at birth • Can be expensive; some argue not cost eﬀective - Selective: target at risk individuals • Ex: Rochester Primary Health Project - target young children who at risk for emotional problems; 70% of these children had better emotional and academic outcomes than children in control group - TEST Q: targeting because they are at risk
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